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|Type||Division of GM|
(1899 as Buick Auto-Vim and Power Company)May 19, 1903
|Founder(s)||David Dunbar Buick|
|Headquarters||Detroit, Michigan, U.S.|
Buick (11px //) is a premium brand of General Motors (GM). Buick models are sold in the United States, Canada, Mexico, China, Taiwan, and Israel, with China being its largest market. Buick holds the distinction as the oldest active American make. Many current Buick models are shared with other GM global subsidiaries.
List of Buick models
- Buick Skyhawk
- Buick Special
- Buick Apollo
- Buick Somerset
- Buick Skylark
- Buick Century
- Buick Regal
- Buick LeSabre
- Buick Invicta
- Buick Super
- Buick Wildcat
- Buick Centurion
- Buick Electra
- Buick Roadmaster
- Buick Estate Wagon
- Buick Limited
- Buick Riviera
- Buick Special
- Buick B-25
- Buick B-37
- Buick B-55
- Buick Enclave
- Buick Excelle
- Buick GSX
- Buick LaCrosse
- Buick Lucerne
- Buick Model series
- Buick Park Avenue
- Buick Rainier
- Buick Series 53
- Buick Verano
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Buick is currently the oldest American still-active automotive make, and among the oldest automobile brands in the world. It originated as the Buick Auto-Vim and Power Company in 1899, an independent internal combustion engine and motor-car manufacturer, and was later incorporated as the Buick Motor Company on May 19, 1903, by Scottish born David Dunbar Buick in Detroit, Michigan. Later that year, the struggling company was taken over by James H. Whiting (1842–1919), who moved it to his hometown of Flint, Michigan, and brought in William C. Durant in 1904 to manage his new acquisition. Buick sold his stock for a small sum upon departure, and died in modest circumstances 25 years later.
Between 1899 and 1902, two prototype vehicles were built in Detroit, Michigan by Walter Lorenzo Marr. Some documentation exists of the 1901 or 1902 prototype with tiller steering similar to the Oldsmobile Curved Dash.
In mid-1904, another prototype was constructed for an endurance run, which convinced James H. Whiting to authorize production of the first models offered to the public. The architecture of this prototype was the basis for the Model B.
The first Buick made for sale, the 1904 Model B, was built in Flint, Michigan. There were 37 Buicks made that year, none of which survived. There are, however, two replicas in existence: the 1904 endurance car, at the Buick Gallery & Research Center in Flint, and a Model B assembled by an enthusiast in California for the division's 100th anniversary. Both of these vehicles use various parts from Buicks of that early era, as well as fabricated parts. These vehicles were each constructed with the two known surviving 1904 engines. Buicks were first built to replicate the living room in a moving automobile, and were nicknamed the "moving couch of America".
The power train and chassis architecture introduced on the Model B was continued through the 1909 Model F. The early success of Buick is attributed in part to the valve-in-head engine patented by Eugene Richard. The Model F had a two-cylinder engine, an 87 inch wheelbase and weighed 1,800 lbs. The creation of General Motors is attributed in part to the success of Buick, so it can be said Marr and Richard's designs directly led to GM.
The basic design of the 1904 Buick was optimally engineered even by today's standards. The flat-twin engine is inherently balanced, with torque presented to the chassis in a longitudinal manner, actually cancelling front end lift, rather than producing undesirable lateral motion. The engine was mounted amidships, now considered the optimal location.
Durant was a natural promoter, and Buick soon became the largest car maker in America. Using the profits from this, Durant embarked on a series of corporate acquisitions, calling the new megacorporation General Motors. At first, the manufacturers comprising General Motors competed against each other, but Durant ended that. He wanted each General Motors division to target one class of buyer, and in his new scheme, Buick was near the top — only the Cadillac brand had more prestige. Buick occupies this position to this day in the General Motors lineup. The ideal Buick customer is comfortably well off, possibly not quite rich enough to afford a Cadillac, nor desiring the ostentation of one, but definitely in the market for a car above the norm.
In 1911, Buick introduced its first closed-body car, four years ahead of Ford. In 1929, as part of General Motors' companion make program, Buick Motor Division launched the Marquette sister brand, designed to bridge the price gap between Buick and Oldsmobile; however, Marquette was discontinued in 1930. Buick scored another first in 1939, when it became the firstTemplate:Citation needed company to introduce turn signals.
1949 - Portholes Debut
1953 - Buick's 50th Anniversary and introduction of Roadmaster Skylark
1961 - Skylark nameplate returns as a compact car
1963 - Riviera introduced as its own model
1971 - "Boat-tail" Riviera introduced
1975 - Park Avenue introduced as trim level/option package on Electra 225 Limited
Overall domestic sales of the Buick brand peaked in 1984Template:Fix, with a broad model line ranging from compacts to large cars, including performance-oriented turbocharged models. Buick's hero car of the 1980s was the Regal Grand National, a midsize coupe with a turbocharged 3.8 V6, and one of the fastest production cars of the decade.
The number of Buick models in the lineup fell over time, with the compact and performance segments being abandoned altogether. However, Buick maintained their traditional Century, Regal, LeSabre, and Park Avenue sedan lines. By the 2000s, Buick had a staid image, while not directly competing with import luxury makes. In 2001, Buick introduced its first SUV, the Rendezvous crossover, while golf star Tiger Woods became its spokesperson.
Buick began consolidating its lineup in 2005, eventually reducing its line to just three models with new nameplates: the 2005 LaCrosse/Allure, the 2006 Lucerne, and the successful 2008 Enclave. While total sales slipped, the profitability of this model line ensured Buick's future within General Motors.
Since 2005, GM had gradually consolidated Buick with GMC and former Pontiac dealerships to create the current Buick-GMC network. During General Motors Chapter 11 reorganization and emergence in 2009, the company designated Buick as a "core brand", citing the division's success in China. Behind the scenes, GM began to move products originally planned for other brands to Buick. The Opel Insignia was originally intended to become the second-generation Saturn Aura, but instead became the new Buick Regal.
In January 2009, Buick unveiled the new 2010 LaCrosse sedan, an all new styling direction which included traditional Buick cues. The market responded to the LaCrosse, with reviews favorably comparing it to the Lexus ES. For 2011, Buick followed up by re-introducing the Regal sedan, a smaller model based on the European Opel Insignia. The Regal will offer a GS sport package and is the first Buick in almost 20 years to be offered with a manual transmission and a turbocharger.
In June 2011, the Lucerne full-size luxury sedan was discontinued after six years in production. Several months later, the all-new 2012 Verano compact sedan was added and the performance-oriented Regal GS officially joined the lineup as well. Meanwhile, sales of the Enclave crossover remained strong.
A GM company spokesman said that Buick is positioned as a "premium" marque (entry-level luxury) to compete with Acura, Lexus, and Volvo, while Cadillac is supposed to be aimed at the "luxury" performance segment which includes BMW and Mercedes-Benz. While both the LaCrosse and Regal share the Epsilon II platform, the larger LaCrosse is more luxury oriented and will face off against the Lexus ES350 and Acura TL, while the Regal's rivals will include the Acura TSX and Volkswagen CC.
In the 2009 J.D. Power and Associates Vehicle Dependability Study, Buick tied with Jaguar as the most dependable brand in the United States. Buick became the fastest growing automotive brand in 2010, attracting a younger customer demographic.
Current and upcoming
As of 2012[update]Template:DMCA, Buick's North American lineup consists of the newly introduced Verano entry-level compact sedan, the Regal mid-size luxury/sports sedan, the LaCrosse mid-size luxury sedan, and the Enclave full-size luxury crossover. Buick plans to launch the Encore, a new mini crossover vehicle, later in the year as a 2013 model.
The Buick Trishield is rooted in the ancestral coat of arms of the automaker’s founder, David Dunbar Buick. That crest was a red shield with a checkered silver and azure diagonal line from the upper left to lower right, a stag above and a punctured cross below. The division adopted this on its radiator grilles in 1937. In 1960, the logo underwent a major overhaul. Its single shield was replaced by a trio in red, white and blue—denoting the LeSabre, Invicta, and Electra then in the Buick lineup. Usurped by the Buick Hawk in the 1970s, the trishield reemerged in the 1980s, simplified, but with its same patriotic colors. Today, again representing the trio of vehicles in the Buick marque, the trishield enjoys its even more distilled—and emboldened—monochrome form.
A traditional Buick styling cue dating to 1949 is a series of three or four vents on the front fender behind the front wheels. The source of this design feature was a custom car of Buick stylist Ned Nickles, which in addition had a flashing light within each hole each synchronized with a specific spark plug simulating the flames from the exhaust stack of a fighter airplane. Combined with the bombsight mascot (introduced in 1946), VentiPorts put the driver at the controls of an imaginary fighter airplane. The flashing light feature was not used by Buick in production, but VentiPorts remained as nonfunctional ornamentation.
They were called VentiPorts because the 1949 sales brochure noted that VentiPorts helped ventilate the engine compartment. The suggestion was made that they allowed air flow out of the engine bay. Air entered from the grill into the engine bay and was pressurized by the radiator fan, and exited through the VentiPorts. And possibly that was true in early 1949, but sometime during the model year they became plugged. VentiPorts have appeared sporadically on several models since and are currently featured on three of the four current Buick models.
When introduced, the number of VentiPorts (three or four) denoted the size of straight-eight engine installed. Since displacement differences in straight-eight engines resulted in more dramatic differences in engine length than on V8s, the Buick Roadmaster (which was the only model at this time with the larger engine) needed a longer chassis in front of the cowl to accomodate the larger engine. Thus an extra VentiPort also corresponded directly to the necessary extra length in front. After the more compact V8 replaced the straight-eight engine in 1953 this difference in chassis length was no longer needed. Nevertheless, the convention remained. Consequently, when the Buick Century (which shared the Buick Special's smaller body behind the engine cowl) was reintroduced in 1954, it also received four VentiPorts to denote its engine's greater displacement. However, in 1955, the Buick Super, which shared Roadmaster's larger body behind the engine cowl, was promoted from three to four VentiPorts despite having the smaller displacement engine. In turn, the Buick Invicta which took the place of the Buick Century in 1959, and consequently had the smaller body with the larger displacement engine, was demoted from four to three VentiPorts on introduction. Thus the number of VentiPorts came to denote body size rather than engine size. VentiPorts appeared on all Buicks from 1949 through 1957, and on most Buicks (notable exceptions include the Buick Wildcat, the Buick Riviera and the Buick Centurion) from 1960 through 1981.
In 2003 VentiPorts were re-introduced on the Buick Park Avenue. After the Park Avenue was discontinued, Buick salvaged the VentiPorts to appear on the new-for-2006 Lucerne. Consistent with the tradition that held from 1949 through 1954, the Lucerne's VentiPorts refer directly to engine size: V6 models have three on each side, while V8s have four on each side.
Modern and edgy compared to the oval ones that adorned Buicks for years, the new VentiPorts have become a Buick-wide talisman again and are currently featured in one form or another on the Lucerne, the popular Enclave and, for 2010, along the inner hood ridges of the redesigned LaCrosse.
Another styling cue from 1940s through the 1970s was the Sweepspear, a curved line running the length of the car. Introduced on the 1949 Buick Roadmaster Riviera hardtop coupe as an optional feature, the Speepspear was a chrome-plated or stainless steel rub strip which, after it passed the front wheel, gently curved down nearly to the rocker panel just before the rear wheel, and then curved around the rear wheel in a quarter of a circle to go straight back to the tail-light. The "Riviera trim", as it was initially called, was also made available on the Roadmaster convertible very late in the model year. It proved so popular that the following year it was made a standard feature on all Buicks. During the two-tone color craze of the 1950s, the sweepspear separated two different color areas. After that, the curved line was usually indicated either by a vinyl rub strip or simply a character line molded into the sheetmetal as hinted in the 2008 Invicta concept car and 2010 LaCrosse/Allure production car.
The 1958 Buick was marketed beginning in September 1957, just as the space age began with the launching of Sputnik I on October 4 of that year. This Buick was nicknamed "the king of chrome" and had rear tailfins reminiscent of a rocket ship. In 1959, Buick had the aerodynamic Delta Fin. The fin made parking difficult and blocked the driver's line of vision. In 1960, the fin was snubbed down and disappeared in 1961, although vestiges of it reappeared in the 2000-2005 LeSabre line with its upswept sides.
During the 1950s, the characteristic form of the Buick taillamps was a tier of small, circular bullet-shapes. In the early 1960s, most models began to evolve a wide, rectangular pattern, until the 1965 Skylark and Electra models appeared with full-width rear lamps. Since then, wide taillamps have been a Buick hallmark.
Classic Grille Styling
The Buick styling cue (dating from the 1940s) that has most often reappeared, though, is for the grille to be a horizontal oval with many thin vertical chromed ribs bulging forward. This has sometimes been called the Buick "dollar grin" particularly on the early 1950s models, which had thick, highly-polished ribs that somewhat resembled teeth. The 1950 model took this tooth theme to its extreme as the teeth crossed over the bumper exposing the 1950 "grin". The 1951 model reined in the theme, bringing the teeth back behind the bumper. Current Buick Models have a new take on the classic styling with their Chromed "Waterfall Grilles".
It appears Buick may be preparing to abandon this styling cue for a new Waterfall Grille, as seen on the Buick Velite concept car from 2004 and the Buick Lucerne introduced for the 2006 model year. This waterfall grille bears some resemblance to grilles of Buicks from the 1980s, such as the Grand National. It was reintroduced on the 2010 Buick LaCrosse and 2010 Buick Enclave
The Buick V8 engine, nicknamed the Nailhead because of its relatively small intake and exhaust valves which resembled nails, became popular with hot-rodders in the 1950s and 1960s, because the vertical attachment of the valve covers, in contrast to the angled attachment of other V8 engines, enabled the engine to fit into smaller spaces while maintaining easy access for maintenance.
By 1967, Buick was making quiet history with more conventional V8s that had abandoned the "nailhead" design but made much greater power. For the 1967 model year, Buick re-named its "Gran Sport" performance models (not to be confused with the Chevrolet "Super Sport" cars) as "GS" models. In 1970 this was headed up by the powerful GS455 Stage 1, so named for its 455 cu in (7.5 L) engine, with its high performance "Stage 1" package. Built on the same "A-body" platform as the Chevelle, Cutlass/442, and LeMans/GTO, the GS cars were performance based vehicles spawned from Buick's Skylark line, and shared all of the A-Body GM offering's tendency for good looks. Both hardtop and convertible "GS" models were offered.
Midway through that year, Buick debuted its GSX model, which was an appearance package rivaling that of the GTO "Judge". GSX colors ran the spectrum that year, if that range included just yellow and white. Subsequent GSX models offered a variety of colors to go with the GSX signature hood blackout treatment and the swept wide pin striping vaguely reminiscent of the famous Buick "sweepspear". GSX models could be ordered with 350, 455, or 455 Stage 1 engines, and were outfitted with the usual GS options such as dual hood scoop hood with functioning "ram-air" intake, and dual exhaust. Horsepower ratings for the Stage 1 455s were a relatively mild 360 hp (or 370 depending on sources), but featured 510 ft·lbf (690 N·m) of torque at 2200 rpm, good to propel the relatively weighty GS455 Stage 1 equipped cars to quarter-mile times of under 13.4 seconds. Buick halted GSX production after the 1972 model year.
The prototype GSX survived the show circuit, and was a fully functioning car that beat the odds to survive not only the usual showcar life of "construction-display-destruction", but also the life of an ordinary car, as it was sold from a dealership after being on display for some time. The car survives to this day, is restored to its original condition, licensed and ready to hit the road.
Unlike some of GM's other brands, Buicks are currently not marketed globally, although the marque had a substantial export presence until a few years agoTemplate:Fix. Some Buicks were also built in Europe or were available with specific trim for European market until 1996.
Buick in Mexico
Buicks were sold in Mexico from 1921 to 1962 when a protectionist policy on behalf of the government restricted the percentage of imported parts that could be used in the manufacture of vehicles and the sale of imported cars. From then onwards, all GM products were sold by Chevrolet dealerships. In 1990, after a heavy modification to the protectionist policy of the sixties, GM started assembling the Buick Century in Mexico, at the plant in Ramos Arizpe, in the state of Coahuila, just south of Texas, and selling it through Mexican Chevrolet dealerships, so it was not uncommon for many people to call it "Chevrolet Century". In 1997, GM stopped production of Buicks in Mexico and the brand was not sold there until 2009.
With the announcement in 2009 of the elimination of the Pontiac brand, it was speculated that Buicks would be sold once again in Mexico, since there was a large network of Pontiac-GMC dealerships already in place. On July 24, 2009, Grace Lieblein, the new president of GM in Mexico, revealed that the Buick brand would be available in Mexico in late September of that year, after an absence of a dozen years, with the LaCrosse and the Enclave models. Buick shares the dealership floor with Pontiac and GMC until the Pontiac brand fades away during the summer of 2010.
Buick in New Zealand
Buick in Israel
In Israel, Buicks are imported by Universal Motors, Ltd. (UMI), which also imports other GM vehicles. For model years 2004 and 2005, the Buick LeSabre and Buick Rendezvous were sold. For model years 2006 and 2007, the Buick LaCrosse and Buick Lucerne were sold alongside the Rendezvous. For model year 2008, the Buick LaCrosse and Buick Lucerne were available.
Buick in the Middle East
Buicks were sold throughout the Middle East until the second-generation Buick Roadmaster was discontinued.
Buick in Mainland China
Making up nearly 35% of those sales, China is Buick's largest market, selling more there than even the United States. In 2007, General Motors sold over 330,000 Buicks in China, more than twice what they sold in the United States.
Since 1999, a Chinese version of the Buick Century/Regal has been produced and sold in mainland China by Shanghai GM and has proven to be popular among upscale, professional families, establishing Buick as one of the most popular vehicle brands in China. In addition, Buick of China also sells the compact Excelle (based on the Daewoo Lacetti/Nubira), a five-door hatchback version called the HRV, and a modified version of the first generation Pontiac Montana minivan named the GL8. Many Buicks for the local market are equipped with smaller more fuel efficient engines with double overhead camshafts, than those with overhead valves in the same nameplate for the American market. The engines of 2005-09 Chevrolet Equinox and Pontiac Torrent, originally intended for Buick in China, were made in China and imported by General Motors.
In June 2005, Buick announced that it would market the Australian RWD Holden Caprice in China as the Buick Royaum (2005–06). Buick previously marketed the subcompact Sail, sourced from GM's Asian operations and based on the Opel Corsa B, until 2005. Since then, Shanghai GM has replaced it with the Chevrolet Sail (a rebadged Opel Corsa). Buick has stated that it expects China to become its second largest market.
In 2006, Buick debuted the Chinese version of the LaCrosse sedan. The only differences are exterior design, different engine choices, and a facelifted interior. It is positioned above the Regal but below the Royaum.
In 2009, Buick sold 447,011 vehicles, an increase of 59.6 percent compared with the previous year.
Buick has sold over two million vehicles in China. The first million took eight years, the second came in at only three years.
Buick in Taiwan
GM Taiwan was founded in August 1989. In the early 1990s, Buick, along with other GM brands, was very popular and frequently seen on Taiwanese streets. Park Avenue, 3rd and 4th generation Regal, and 6th generation Skylark used to be sold in Taiwan.
In December 2004, General Motors signed a memorandum of understanding with Yulon, a firm based in Taiwan, for the licensed manufacture of Buick vehicles there. In July 2005, Yulon GM Motor Co. Ltd. (Yulon GM), a joint venture with 51 percent equity stake held by Yulon Motor and 49 percent by GM, was founded.
On April 17, 2006, Yulon GM debuted the first Buick vehicle ever built in Taiwan, the LaCrosse sedan. It is very similar to the Chinese version of the LaCrosse.
For many years, Buick was a major substitute for Chevrolet in automobile racing. No earlier than the 1960s, Buick was a major competitor in the Indianapolis 500, and (like almost every other American manufacturer) also participated in the Grand National stock car racing series using its Regal and later the Grand Sport.
The golden age of Buick in motorsport, however, was the late eighties. NASCAR entered the Regal, particularly the Grand National, in the Winston Cup Series alongside the Oldsmobile Cutlass. Buick was also a major powerplant in the CART IndyCar Series and IMSA GT Series (particularly in the IMSA GTP class) for several years. The 1990s, however, proved to be the end of Buick's reign in motorsports, as GM replaced it for many years with Oldsmobile before phasing out that marque in 2004. Oldsmobile would be replaced by Pontiac until its demise in 2009, being replaced by Chevrolet.
The Buick Club of America, founded in 1966, is a non-profit organization dedicated to the preservation and restoration of automobiles built by the Buick Motor Division of General Motors Corporation.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 "2010 Buick LaCrosse Expert Review: AutoBlog". AOL autos. http://autos.aol.com/cars-Buick-LaCrosse-2010/expert-review/. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
- ↑ Flint Timeline Project-James H. WhitingTemplate:Dead link
- ↑ "Buick History". Welovebuicks.com. http://www.welovebuicks.com/history.html. Retrieved 2010-10-16.
- ↑ "1901 Buick perhaps 1902". Prewarbuick.com. 2002-01-01. http://www.prewarbuick.com/cars/19/1901-Buick-perhaps-1902. Retrieved 2010-10-16.
- ↑ "James H. Whiting". Thewhiting.com. http://thewhiting.com/aboutus/history.html. Retrieved 2010-10-16.
- ↑ "1904 Buick Model B". Prewarbuick.com. 2002-01-01. http://www.prewarbuick.com/cars/4/1904-Buick-Model-B. Retrieved 2010-10-16.
- ↑ "1904 Buick Prototype - Sloan Museum". 1929buick.com. http://1929buick.com/gallery/sloan. Retrieved 2010-10-16.
- ↑ Buick's Flint Centennial Celebration DetailedTemplate:Dead link
- ↑ "1904 Buick Model B - Restoration Project". 1929buick.com. http://1929buick.com/gallery/1904buick. Retrieved 2010-10-16.
- ↑ Katz, John F. (1998-03-02). "1909 Buick Model F". Autoweek.com. http://www.autoweek.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060703/FREE/60623009/1027/FREE. Retrieved 2010-10-16.
- ↑ "A Heritage of Precision". Buick. http://www.buick.com/heritage/index.jsp. Retrieved 2010-10-16.
- ↑ "Directory Index: Buick/1906_Buick/1906_Buick_Brochure". Oldcarbrochures.com. http://www.oldcarbrochures.com/static/NA/Buick/1906_Buick/1906_Buick_Brochure/1906%20Buick%20Automobiles-14.html. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- ↑ "The free-wheeling gambler who created conservative General Motors". Info.detnews.com. 1996-07-30. http://info.detnews.com/redesign/history/story/historytemplate.cfm?id=100&CFID=11771161&CFTOKEN=80488863. Retrieved 2010-10-16.
- ↑ Stoll, John D. (2008-07-07). "GM Weighs More Layoffs, Sale of Brands". Online.wsj.com. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB121539865693931653.html?mod=hpp_us_whats_news. Retrieved 2010-10-16.
- ↑ "Buick History (1904-1929)". 1929buick.com. http://1929buick.com/gallery/history/aag. Retrieved 2010-10-16.
- ↑ Wells, Dick. "SRMA Update" in Street Rodder, 12/98, p.298. The accuracy of this source is in question, however.
- ↑ Clymer, Floyd. Treasury of Early American Automobiles, 1877-1925 (New York: Bonanza Books, 1950), p.121.
- ↑ Clymer, p.120.
- ↑ Motor Trend, 4/84, p.6.
- ↑ "History & Heritage". Buick.com. http://www.buick.com/experience/heritage.html. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- ↑ Dederer, Andrew (2008-04-25). "Buick and the Detroit Zombies". The Truth About Cars. http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/buick-and-the-detroit-zombies/. Retrieved 2011=09-23.
- ↑ Krebs, Michelle (2009-06-29). "'Good' GM: Maybe Not All That Good". Edmunds Auto Observer. http://www.autoobserver.com/2009/06/good-gm-maybe-not-all-that-good.html. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
- ↑ Evans, Scott (2009-04-02). "GM CEO Henderson Says Buick is a Core Brand". MotorTrend.com. http://wot.motortrend.com/gm-ceo-henderson-says-buick-is-a-core-brand-uaw-talks-could-reopen-if-need-be-4343.html. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
- ↑ "2011 Buick Regal Expert Review: AutoBlog". AOL autos. http://autos.aol.com/cars-Buick-Regal-2011/expert-review/. Retrieved 2011-09-23.
- ↑ "GMI Exclusive: 2010 Saturn Aura on "Hold"". GM Inside News. 2008-06-26. http://www.gminsidenews.com/forums/f14/gmi-exclusive-2010-saturn-aura-hold-66090/. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
- ↑ "Comparison: 2010 Buick LaCrosse CXS vs 2010 Lexus ES 350". Motor Trend. 2010-03. http://www.motortrend.com/roadtests/sedans/112_1004_2010_buick_lacrosse_2010_lexus_es_350_comparison/results.html. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
- ↑ Phillips, John (October 2010). "2010 Acura TSX V6 vs. 2011 Buick Regal CXL Turbo, 2010 Volkswagen CC 2.0T R-Line - Comparison Tests". Car and Driver. http://www.caranddriver.com/reviews/comparisons/10q4/2010_acura_tsx_v6_vs._2011_buick_regal_cxl_turbo_2010_volkswagen_cc_2.0t_r-line-comparison_tests. Retrieved 2011-09-23.
- ↑ "Buick and Jaguar Tie to Rank Highest for Vehicle Dependability", J.D. Power Press Release, 19 March 2009
- ↑ "Fastest Growing Car Brand in America? Buick". Advertising Age. 2010-08-16. http://adage.com/article/news/advertising-buick-fastest-growing-car-brand-america/145397/. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
- ↑ "Photo of a 1958 Buick Special". http://photos.cokertire.com/data/510/1958-buick-special.jpg. Retrieved 2010-12-27.
- ↑ "Source of the photo of the 1958 Buick". Photos.cokertire.com. 2008-05-05. http://photos.cokertire.com/showphoto.php/photo/17. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- ↑ "Photo of a 1959 Buick". http://www.davidsdimension.com/Retro1959_Buick2DoorConvertable.jpg. Retrieved 2010-12-27.
- ↑ "Source of the photo of the 1959 Buick—David’s Dimension Classic Car Images:". Davidsdimension.com. http://www.davidsdimension.com/cars%20from%20my%20youth.htm. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- ↑ Peter Alexander (2006-05-15). "Buick bucks the trend — GM brand is No. 1 car seller in China, thanks to smart marketing". NBC News. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/12801549/. Retrieved 2008-10-11.
- ↑ http://www.magnetdesign.co.nz/. "Heart of Holden - Heritage | Holden New Zealand". Holden.co.nz. http://holden.co.nz/heart/heritage/. Retrieved 2010-09-13.
- ↑ "China could save a tarnished GM brand", Roland Jones, MSNBC.com, Dec. 20,2006
- ↑ "GM finds surprising success in China". MSNBC. 2008-08-05. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/25950947/. Retrieved 2008-09-17.
- ↑ "A Chevy With an Engine From China", Ian Austen, New York Times, March 26, 2008
- ↑ Cheryl Jensen (2010-04-23). "Forecast Says China Provides Opportunities and Competition". New York Times Wheels blog. http://wheels.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/04/23/forecast-says-china-provides-opportunities-and-competition/. Retrieved 2010-04-23.
- ↑ "GM hits two million sells in China". Autoblog. 2009-06-22. http://www.autoblog.com/2009/06/22/gm-hits-two-million-buick-sales-in-china/. Retrieved 2009-10-18.