Car classification

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Cars may be classified by a number of different criteria; however, comprehensive classification is elusive, because a vehicle may fit into multiple categories, or not completely satisfy the requirements for any. This article details the most commonly used systems of classification. Where applicable, the equivalent Euro NCAP classifications are shown. Car rental companies often use the ACRISS Car Classification Code. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has another set of classification rules based on interior passenger and cargo volumes.[1] A similar set of classes is used by the Canadian EPA.[2] In Australia, the Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries publishes its own classifications.[3]

Contents

Classification

This is a table listing several different methods of car classification.



Car classification
American English British English Euro Car Segment[4] Euro NCAP 1997 - 2009 Euro NCAP[5] Examples
Microcar Microcar, Bubble car A-segment mini cars Supermini Passenger car Isetta, Smart Fortwo
Subcompact car City car Renault Twingo, Peugeot 107, Ford Ka, Fiat 500, Tata Nano, Suzuki Alto
Supermini B-segment small cars Ford Fiesta, Volkswagen Polo, Opel Corsa, Citroën DS3, Peugeot 207
Compact car Small family car C-segment medium cars Small family car Ford Focus, Opel Astra, Toyota Auris, Volkswagen Golf, Chevrolet Cruze
Mid-size car Large family car D-segment large cars Large family car Ford Mondeo, Hyundai Sonata, Opel Insignia, Chevrolet Malibu, IKCO Samand
Entry-level luxury car Compact executive car Acura TSX, Alfa Romeo 159, Mercedes C-Class, BMW 3 Series, Audi A4, Cadillac CTS
Full-size car Executive car E-segment executive cars Executive car Ford Crown Victoria, Holden Commodore, Toyota Crown, Chevrolet Impala
Mid-size luxury car Lexus GS, BMW 5 Series, Jaguar XF, Lincoln LS, Volvo S80, Chrysler 300
Full-size luxury car Luxury car F-segment luxury cars  - Audi A8, Maserati Quattroporte, Mercedes S-Class, Cadillac DTS
Sports car Sports car S-segment sport coupes  - Chevrolet Corvette, Porsche 911, Ferrari 458 Italia, Nissan Z-car, Lamborghini Gallardo
Grand tourer Grand tourer  - Jaguar XK, Ferrari 612 Scaglietti, Maserati GranTurismo
Supercar Supercar  - Bugatti Veyron, Ferrari Enzo, Pagani Zonda
Convertible Convertible  - BMW 6 Series, Mercedes CLK, Volvo C70, Volkswagen Eos, Chevrolet Camaro
Roadster Roadster Roadster sports Roadster Audi TT, Honda S2000, Lotus Elise, Mazda MX-5, Porsche Boxster,
 - Leisure activity vehicle M-segment multi purpose cars Small MPV MPV Renault Kangoo, Peugeot Partner, Ford Tourneo Connect, Škoda Roomster
 - Mini MPV Renault Modus, Citroen C3 Picasso, Opel Meriva, Honda Fit
Compact minivan Compact MPV, Midi MPV Renault Scenic, Citroën C4 Picasso, Opel Zafira, Ford C-Max, Volkswagen Touran
Minivan Large MPV Large MPV Renault Espace, Peugeot 807, Chrysler Town and Country, Ford Galaxy,
Mini SUV Mini 4x4 J-segment sport utility cars (including off-road vehicles) Small Off-Road 4x4 Off-roader Daihatsu Terios, Mitsubishi Pajero iO, Suzuki Jimny, Jeep Wrangler
Compact SUV Compact 4x4 Ford Escape, Honda CR-V, Kia Sportage, Toyota RAV4, Chevy Equinox, Jeep Liberty
 - Coupé SUV  - Isuzu VehiCROSS, BMW X6
Mid-size SUV Large 4x4 Large Off-Road 4x4 Ford Explorer, Jeep Grand Cherokee, Volkswagen Touareg, Chevrolet Tahoe
Full-size SUV Cadillac Escalade ESV, Chevrolet Suburban, Range Rover, Toyota Land Cruiser
Mini pickup truck Pick-up  - Pick-up Pickup Chevrolet Montana, Fiat Strada, Volkswagen Saveiro
Mid-size pickup truck Chevrolet Colorado, Ford Ranger, Mitsubishi Triton/L200, Nissan Navara
Full-size pickup truck Dodge Ram, Ford F-150, GMC Sierra, Nissan Titan, Toyota Tundra
Full-size Heavy Duty pickup truck Chevrolet Silverado, Ford Super Duty, Ram Heavy Duty

Microcar

Smart ForTwo

Straddling the boundary between car and motorbike, these vehicles have engines under 1.0 litre, typically seat only two passengers, and are sometimes unorthodox in construction. Some microcars are three-wheelers, while the majority have four wheels. Microcars were popular in post-war Europe, where their appearance led them to be called "Bubble cars". A descendant of the microcar is the modern Smart Fortwo.

Examples of microcars:

Hatchbacks, saloons (sedans) and estate cars (station wagons)

City car

Citroën C1

A city car is a small automobile intended for use in urban areas. Unlike microcars, a city car's greater speed, capacity and (in perception at least) occupant protection are safer in mixed traffic environments and weather conditions. While city cars can reach highway speeds, that is not their intended use. In Japan, city cars are called kei cars. Kei cars have to meet strict size and engine requirements: engines have a maximum displacement of 660 cc and the car's length must be under 3400 mm.

Examples of kei cars:

Examples of city cars:

Supermini/subcompact car

File:FordFiestaMkIV silver.jpg
Ford Fiesta (1995-1999 model)

This class is known as supermini in Europe, subcompact in North America. Superminis have three, four or five doors and are designed to seat four passengers comfortably. Current supermini hatchbacks are approximately 3900 mm long, while saloons and estate cars are around 4200 mm long.

In Europe, the first superminis were the Fiat 500 of 1957 and the Austin Mini of 1959. Today, superminis are some of the best selling vehicles in Europe.

In Australia, the motoring press tends to distinguish between a light car such as the Daihatsu Charade or early models of the Holden Barina, and slightly larger models such as the Ford Fiesta which is considered to be a small car. As the general size of vehicles in this class has gradually increased, the category of light car has almost disappeared.

Examples of superminis / subcompact cars:

This category is equivalent to the EuroNCAP class "Superminis".

Small family car/compact car

Toyota Corolla (2001-2007 Model)

Small family/compact cars refer to the hatchbacks and shortest saloons and estate cars with similar size. They are approximately 4250 mm long in case of hatchbacks and 4500 mm in the case of saloons and estate cars. Compact cars have room for five adults and usually have engines between 1.4 and 2.2 litres, but some have engines of up to 2.5 litres. These are the most popular vehicles in most developed countries.

Examples of hatchback small family cars/compact cars:

This category is equivalent to the EuroNCAP class "Small Family Cars". In Australia, this class is generally referred to as being small-medium sized cars.

Large family car/mid-size car

Opel Insignia

Large family/mid-size cars have room for five adults and a large trunk (boot). Engines are more powerful than small family/compact cars and six-cylinder engines are more common than in smaller cars. Car sizes vary from region to region; in Europe, large family cars are rarely over 4700 mm long, while in North America, Middle East and Australasia they may be well over 4800 mm. Examples of large family cars/mid-size cars:

This category is equivalent to the EuroNCAP class "Large Family Cars". These are known in Australia as Medium sized cars.

Full-size car/large car

Lincoln Town Car

This term is used most in North America, Middle East and Australia where it refers to the largest sedans on the market. Full-size cars may be well over 4900 mm long and are the roomiest vehicles.

Examples of full-size cars:

Compact executive car/entry-level luxury car

These are luxurious equivalents to mid-size and compact cars. Powerful four-, six- and even eight-cylinder engines are available, but rear seat room and trunk space are more reduced than in more common executive or luxury vehicles simply because of their smaller size and sport characteristics. Examples of compact premium cars / entry-level luxury cars:

This category is equivalent to the EuroNCAP class "Large Family Cars".

Executive car/mid-luxury car

BMW 5 Series

An executive car or mid-luxury car is larger than a large family car/mid-size car and a compact executive car/entry-level luxury car. They are usually very roomy, powerful and luxurious, making them more expensive than "standard" saloons. This also refers to the largest hatchbacks within the similar length in this class.

Examples of executive cars/mid-luxury cars:

This category is equivalent to the EuroNCAP class "Executive Cars".

Full-size luxury car/Grand saloon

A full-size car is typically a four-door saloon (sedan). These are the most powerful saloons, with six, eight and twelve-cylinder engines and have more equipment than smaller models.

Examples of full-size cars:

This category is equivalent to the EuroNCAP class "Executive Cars".

Sports cars and grand tourers

Hot hatch

A hot hatch is a high-performance hatchback, based on standard superminis or small family cars with improved performance, handling and styling. Hot hatches are very popular in Europe, and originated from the original Volkswagen Golf GTI. In North America, sport compacts are usually sold as saloons or coupés rather than hatchbacks. The hot hatches are now expanded to large family hatchbacks, and is called as large hot hatch as these are larger than small hot hatches.

Examples of hot hatches/sport compacts:

Examples of large hot hatches:

Sports saloon / sports sedan

Opel Insignia OPC

These are high-performance versions of saloons. Sometimes originally homologated for production based motorsports (touring cars) and like regular saloons, seats four or five people.

Examples of sports saloons/sedans:

Examples of sport compact saloons/sedans:

Sports car

A Honda NSX

This small-size vehicle class combines performance and handling. Sometimes inspired by racing vehicles, this class ranges from lightweight derivatives such the Lotus Elise and "average consumer" focused models such as the Mazda MX-5, to heavier and more powerful models such as the Dodge Viper.

Examples of sports cars:

Grand tourer

Maserati GranTurismo

Larger, more powerful and heavier than sports cars, these vehicles typically have a FR layout and seating for four passengers (2+2). These are more expensive than sports cars but not as expensive as supercars. Some grand tourers are hand-built.

Examples of grand tourers:

Supercar

Lamborghini Gallardo

Supercar is a term generally used for ultra-high-end exotic cars, whose performance is superior to that of its contemporaries. The proper application of the term is subjective and disputed, especially among enthusiasts.

Examples of supercars:

Muscle car

1970 The Machine

The muscle car term refers to a variety of high-performance vehicles, mainly affordable 2-door rear wheel drive mid-size cars with powerful V8 engines, that were most often made in the United States.[6][7] Although opinions vary, it is generally accepted that classic muscle cars were produced in the late 1960s and early 1970s.[8][9][10][11] Muscle cars were also produced in Australia and other nations.

Examples of American muscle cars from the 1960s and 1970s:

Examples of Australian muscle cars:

Pony car

1966 Ford Mustang

The pony car is a class of automobile launched and inspired by the Ford Mustang in 1964. It describes an affordable, compact, highly styled car with a sporty or performance-oriented image.[12][13]

Examples of American pony cars (and some automotive journalists state that "Pony Cars are an expressly American creation")[14]:

Convertible

Full-sized convertible

A car that features a flexibly operating roof for open or enclosed mode driving. Also known as a cabriolet or roadster.

Examples of convertibles:

Off-roaders

Off-road vehicles, or "off-roaders" are sometimes referred to as "four-wheel drives", "four by fours", or 4x4s — this sometimes happens colloquially in cases where certain models or even an entire range does not possess four-wheel drive.

Sport utility vehicle

Sport utility vehicles are off-road vehicles with four-wheel drive and true off-road capability. They most often feature high ground clearance and an upright, boxy body design. Sport Utilities are typically defined by a body on frame construction which offers more off-road capability but reduced on-road ride comfort and handling compared to a cross-over or car based utility vehicle.

Examples of SUVs:

This category is equivalent to the EuroNCAP class "Large Off-Roaders".

Crossover SUV

Crossover SUVs are derived from an automobile platform using a monocoque construction with light off-road capability and lower ground clearance than SUVs. They may be styled similar to conventional "off-roaders", or may be look similar to an estate car or station wagon.

Examples of crossover SUVs:

This category is equivalent to the EuroNCAP class "Small Off-Roaders".

Multi-purpose vehicles / Minivans

Citroën Xsara Picasso

Also known as "people carriers", this class of cars resembles tall estate cars. Larger MPVs may have seating for up to eight passengers. (Beyond that size, similar vehicles tend to be derived from vans (see below) and in Europe are called minibuses.)

Being taller than a family car improves visibility for the driver (while reducing visibility for other road users) and may help access for the elderly or disabled. They also offer more seats and increased load capacity than hatchbacks or estate cars.

Examples of mini MPVs:

Examples of compact MPVs:

Both categories are equivalent to the EuroNCAP class "Small MPVs".

Dodge Grand Caravan

Examples of large MPVs / minivans:

This category is equivalent to the EuroNCAP class "MPVs".

Van, camper, RV, minibus etc.

American conversion van
File:ConversionVan-Interior.JPG
Interior of above conversion van, showing large interior area (Seating removed for clarity)

In some countries, the term "van" can refer to a small panel van based on a passenger car design (often the estate model / station wagon); it also refers to light trucks, which themselves are sometimes based on SUVs or MPVs. (But note that those retaining seats and windows, while being larger and more utilitarian than MPVs, may be called "minibuses".) The term is also used in the term "camper van" (or just "camper") — equivalent to a North American recreational vehicle (RV).

In the United States, the term "van" refers to vehicles that, like European minibuses, are even larger than large MPVs and are rarely seen being driven for domestic purposes — except for "conversion vans". These possess extremely large interior space and are often more intended for hauling cargo than people. Most vans use body-on-frame construction and are thus suitable for extensive modification and coachwork, known as conversion. Conversion vans are often quite luxurious, boasting comfortable seats, soft rides, built-in support for electronics such as television sets, and other amenities. The more elaborate conversion vans straddle the line between cars and recreational vehicles.

Examples of North American "vans":

Examples of European "vans":

Car show class definitions

A different classification system is used for purposes of differentiating vehicles in most car shows. While there is little doubt about the definition of classes that are self-described such as "Mustang" or "Firebird", there is often confusion about the definition of classes that are not as readily understood. The following classes are often used in car shows across America - the definitions are determined either by state regulations, the National Street Rod Association, or have been gathered from other reliable sources:

  • Street Rod — A motor vehicle, or a reproduction thereof, with a model year of 1948 or older which has been materially altered or modified by the removal, addition or substitution of essential parts and with a gross weight or registered gross weight of not more than 9,000 pounds.
  • Classic car — A motor vehicle, but not a reproduction thereof, at least 30 years old, not materially altered or modified by the removal, addition or substitution of essential parts except that such parts represent the original
  • Hot Rod - Any car rebuilt or modified for higher speed, faster acceleration, or a sportier look. Many automobiles may be called hot rods, including some used in drag racing. They may be composed of used or newly fabricated parts. Can be a kit car.
  • Custom car - A factory-built vehicle that has been modified in either to improve its performance, often by altering or replacing the engine and transmission, or it may be a personal design by the builder, making the car look unique and unlike any car that might have been factory built. Though distinct from hot rods there is debate among customizers and rodders as to where the line should be drawn. A Custom Car cannot be a kit car, as a kit car is not a factory-built vehicle that has been modified from the original configuration.
  • Antique car — A motor vehicle, but not a reproduction thereof, at least 25 years old, which has been maintained in or restored to a condition which is substantially in conformity with manufacturer specifications and appearance.
  • Special Interest - a vehicle uniquely distinguishable from the usual, or designed for a particular purpose (i.e. fire truck, MASH jeep, tank, surf wagon, bus, race cars etc.) which would pique the interest of the public at large because of its uniqueness or specialty function.
  • Kit car - Any vehicle that is created primarily from kit or prefabricated parts, and is a reproduction or replica. An original factory-built vehicle that utilizes prefabricated fiberglass body units to replace worn or damaged original parts is not a kit car.
  • Brass Era car - Beginning with the first horseless carriages, named for the brass fittings used for such things as lights and radiators. Starting with the first commercial automobiles of the 1890s to about 1918-1919. This includes most Edwardian cars.
  • Edwardian car - Any vehicle built from 1905 to 1918. Includes all brass era cars
  • Vintage car - Commonly defined as a car built between 1919 and 1930. The Classic Car Club of America prefers 1925 since it is the pre-classic car period.
  • Pre-war car - Beginning with the Great Depression in 1930 and ending after World War II, usually placed at 1948

References

  1. "How are vehicle size classes defined?". U.S. Department of Energy. http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/info.shtml#sizeclasses. Retrieved 18 January 2011. 
  2. "Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999". Canada Gazette Part II 137 (1). http://www.gazette.gc.ca/archives/p2/2003/2003-01-01/pdf/g2-13701.pdf. Retrieved 18 January 2011. 
  3. "VFACTS Motor Vehicle Classifications and Definitions". Australian FCAI - Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries. http://www.fcai.com.au/sales/segmentation-criteria. Retrieved 18 January 2011. 
  4. European Commission classification
  5. NCAP Comparable cars
  6. Koch, Jeff. "The First Muscle Car: Older Than You" Hemmings Muscle Machines - October 1, 2004, retrieved on 2008-06-30.
  7. The Merriam-Webster definition: "any of a group of American-made 2-door sports coupes with powerful engines designed for high-performance driving."car "muscle car." Merriam-Webster Online, retrieved on 2008-06-30.
  8. "Muscle Car Definition" Muscle Car Club Muscle, retrieved on 2008-06-30.
  9. Sherman, Don. "Muscle Cars Now Worth Millions" The New York Times, June 4, 2006, retrieved on 2008-06-30.
  10. Classic Muscle Cars Library, How Stuff Works, undated, retrieved on 2008-06-30.
  11. "Muscle Car Definition" by Muscle Car Society, retrieved on 2008-06-30.
  12. Gunnell, John (2005). American Cars of The 1960s: A Decade of Diversity. Krause Publications. pp. 47–50. ISBN 9780896891319. 
  13. "Pony Car History", retrieved on 2008-06-30.
  14. Roy, Rex. "Car culture: A child's Pony Car education essential" The Detroit News, February 27, 2008, retrieved on 2008-06-30.

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