1993–1995 Holden Apollo (JM) SLX sedan|
Holden Apollo (JM)
5-door station wagon
|Layout||Front-engine, front-wheel drive|
The Holden Apollo is a compact and later mid-size car that was distributed from 1989 to 1997 by Holden, the Australian subsidiary of General Motors (GM). As a successor to the GM-engineered Holden Camira, the Apollo was a badge engineered version of the Toyota Camry, also sold in Australia. In paralleling two generations of the Toyota, there were minor cosmetic differences in the grille, lights and trim, et cetera.
The Apollo was one of thirteen vehicles involved in the Button car plan, which aimed to make the Australian motor business more efficient and eliminate import tariffs. However, the plan was considered to be unsuccessful, with many of the badge-engineered vehicles selling in significantly less numbers than the original manufacture's vehicle. Production ceased in late 1996, although enough cars remained until the replacement Holden Vectra arrived in mid-1997.
|Holden Apollo (JK) SLE sedan|
Toyota Camry (V20)|
Toyota Vista (V20)
|Assembly||Port Melbourne, Victoria, Australia|
2.0 L 3S-FC I4|
2.0 L 3S-FE I4
|Wheelbase||2,600 mm (102.4 in)|
4,500 mm (177.2 in) (sedan)|
4,525 mm (178.1 in) (wagon)
|Width||1,710 mm (67.3 in)|
1,400 mm (55.1 in) (sedan)|
1,440 mm (56.7 in) (wagon)
As a replacement for the JE Camira, JK versions of the Apollo began sales in August 1989—a collaboration with Toyota Australia, which also produced the car as the Toyota Camry (SV21/SV22) for local consumption. The Apollo versions of the Camry were differentiated by a redesigned grille, tail lamps and other trim items. This badge engineering scheme was the result of the Button car plan, introduced by the Australian Government in May 1984 to rationalise and make the Australian automotive industry more competitive on a global scale by means of reducing import tariffs.
Toyota Australia began local manufacturing of the Toyota Camry (SV21/SV22) in 1987 at its Port Melbourne, Victoria facility as a replacement for the Toyota Corona (T140) and the Camry before it. Engine production and panel-stamping was undertaken at Toyota's Altona, Victoria plant. In the same year, Toyota and Holden formed United Australian Automobile Industries (UAAI), a joint venture that resulted in model sharing between both automakers from August 1989. Other UAAI badge engineered cars were the Holden Nova (based on the Toyota Corolla) and the Toyota Lexcen (based on the Holden Commodore). Prior to UAAI, Holden had ventured with Nissan.
Powertrains were also as for the Camry, with a twin-cam, multi-valve 2.0 litre straight-four engine and five-speed manual transmission. A four-speed overdrive automatic was made optional. All models bar the SLE had a two-barrel carburettor version of the engine (3S-FC); the SLE featured an electronic fuel-injected (EFI) version of the same (3S-FE). The base engine produced 82 kilowatts (110 hp) and 166 newton metres (122 ft·lbf) of torque, with 88 kilowatts (118 hp) and 171 newton metres (126 ft·lbf) for the EFI version. In May 1991, the EFI version of the engine was made standard upon the carburettored engine's deletion. This was the result of the introduction of more stringent emission standards in Australia.
Like the Camira before it, the JK Apollo was available in "SL", "SLX" and "SLE" equipment variants in either sedan or station wagon body styles. An "SLX" option pack, known as the "Executive" was also available. The "SL" opened up the Apollo range with remote exterior mirrors, intermittent windscreen wipers, heated rear screen demister, remote boot release for sedans and fuel filler door, a two-speaker radio cassette player and tinted side and rear glass. "SLX" variants were distinguished by their full wheel covers, as opposed to the "SL" model's steel wheels with centre caps. The "Executive" variant was not a stand alone model, but an option pack for the "SLX", adding power steering and automatic transmission. The JK range was finished off with the "SLE". Unique-to-"SLE" equipment included the EFI engine, four-wheel disc brakes, variable intermittent windscreen wipers, a four-speaker stereo, body-coloured bumpers, dual odometers, automatic headlamp cut-off system, velour seat upholstery, centre back-seat armrest, power antenna, central locking with illuminated driver's door lock and front map lamps.
Holden have issued several product recalls for the JK Apollo. The first, issued on 12 December 1989, involved a potential brake fluid leak, leading to reduced stopping efficiency. A defect involving the air filter baffle was issued on 6 September 1990 for SLE sedans and wagons. The recall was issued after the discovery of a possible dislodge of the baffle which could be drawn into the air intake system and lodge in the throttle. On 21 April 1991, a third recall involving incorrectly fitted rear brake hoses was announced followed by a fourth 2 October 1992 recall. This 1992 recall affected July 1989 to July 1990 models equipped with central locking whereby the relays in the electronic door lock control unit may fail, causing their contacts to weld.
In August 1991 there was a small facelift, given the designation JL, with an altered model range. The "SL" and "SLX" continued, with the "SLE" now available only as a sedan. The Executive pack was now no longer offered, and a sports version, dubbed "GS" was introduced in both body variants. Equipment levels mostly mirrored the previous JK, although the "SLX" was now similar in specification to the discontinued "Executive" and the "GS" to the JK "SLE", albeit without standard automatic transmission. Appearance-wise, the JK and JL are very similar, with the JL's grille treated with bolder chrome highlighting and redesigned tail lamps on sedans. These lights now have the stop lens above the orange turn signal lens.
The Used Car Safety Ratings, published in 2008 by the Monash University Accident Research Centre, found that first-generation Holden Apollos (JK/JL) provide an "average" level of occupant safety protection in the event of an accident.
|1993–1995 Holden Apollo (JM) SLX wagon|
Toyota Camry (XV10)|
Toyota Scepter (XV10)
Toyota Vienta (XV10)
Port Melbourne, Victoria, Australia (1993–1994)|
Altona, Victoria, Australia (1994–1996)
2.2 L 5S-FE I4|
3.0 L 3VZ-FE V6
|Wheelbase||2,620 mm (103.1 in)|
4,725 mm (186.0 in) (sedan)|
4,795 mm (188.8 in) (wagon)
|Width||1,770 mm (69.7 in)|
1,400 mm (55.1 in) (sedan)|
1,505 mm (59.3 in) (wagon)
The new-generation JM Apollo arrived at Holden dealerships in March 1993, based on the enlarged Toyota Camry (SDV10/VDV10). These SDV10/VDV10 Toyotas had been introduced to Australia a month earlier, in February 1993.
The larger size of the new car was heavily advertised by Toyota as the "wide-body" Camry. Holden's advertising differed in this sense, with a more subdued tone to help set it apart. Holden was also granted additional design input with the new JM model, on the grounds of further differentiation between it and the Camry clone. Following the establishment of UAAI, Holden instituted a high-security design centre within the company responsible for producing visual distinction between venture models. Its autonomy and secrecy from the remainder of the firm permitted the exchange of information regarding the new Camry from 1989, thus allowing a unique-to-Apollo identity to be crafted. The end result was an Apollo with its own bumper, bonnet, grille and headlamp assemblage up front, coupled to a markedly different rear, with re-styled tail lamps and a decklid-mounted, as opposed to bumper-mounted, registration plate cavity.
Mechanically, the Apollo's setup was a verbatim copy of the Camry, with steering and suspension calibrations left unchanged. Likewise, the powertrains were also as fitted to the Toyota with a twin-cam, EFI 2.2 litre 5S-FE straight-four producing 93 kilowatts (125 hp) and 185 newton metres (136 ft·lbf), with an optional quad-cam EFI 3.0 litre 3VZ-FE V6 making 136 kilowatts (182 hp) and 264 newton metres (195 ft·lbf). This figure is 3 kilowatts (4.0 hp) down on the equivalent Camry V6. These V6-engined Apollos featured larger-diameter 15-inch wheels over the 14-inch diameter used on the 2.2. The 2.2 litre models also featured a five-speed manual as standard fitment, although an optional electronically controlled four-speed automatic transmission was offered at an extra cost—standard and the sole choice on V6s. Both four-door sedan and five-door station wagon variants were available as before, although trim levels were limited to SLX and GS:
SLX: was aimed at fleet markets, fitted with power steering, a radio cassette player, a remote boot and fuel cap release, and electric side-view mirrors. The sedan-only SLX V6 added four-wheel disc brakes over the 2.2 model's front-disc, rear-drum layout, with anti-lock brakes (ABS) on the V6 available as an option. Wagons without ABS fitted made do with a load-sensing valve mechanism to control rear brake lock-up.
GS: built on the SLX level, adding 60/40 split-fold rear seats, variable intermittent windscreen wipers, a four-speaker stereo, tachometer, central locking and a more luxurious interior upholstery style.
At the same time as Toyota's Camry upgrade in April 1994, Apollo specifications were also uprated slightly. SLXs now had a four- and GSs a six-speaker stereo system, up from two and four, respectively. The SLX also received a tachometer and rear mudflaps, while the GS variant gained standard fitment cruise control and power windows. A second update in June 1994 fitted a driver's airbag as standard on all models bar the four-cylinder SLX.
Holden have issued three JM Apollo-related recalls. Models manufactured between November 1993 and May 1994 were found to have a potential steering failure. The defect, circulated on 7 September 1994 outlined a possible loosening of the steering wheel, causing a loss of steering control. In a second recall dated 21 July 1995, Holden stated cars produced from 26 May to 16 June 1995 may have been built with a kink in the wire of the front seat track locking mechanism, leading to the seat moving forward in the event of a collision. Holden reported a final JM series recall on 15 March 1996. Here, the headlamp dimmer switch contact points and arms may become overheated and cause erratic headlamp operation.
The JP series update succeeded the JM from August 1995. A new grille insert with dual "U"-shaped apertures tied in with the existing VS Commodore range. The redesigned Holden logo was also relocated from the JM's grille position to the bonnet, and the rear-end was treated to white tail lamp pin striping. At the same time, the model range was revised, the GS wagon removed, and manual transmission could now only be specified in conjunction with the SLX four-cylinder. The availability of ABS was also extended to these four-cylinder models, with four-wheel disc brakes now fitted across the board. In addition to this, remote central locking came standard to the SLX along with rear head restraints. Further enhancements were also made for the GS's sound system.
Like the previous generation, JM/JP Apollos were assessed in the 2008 Used Car Safety Ratings, and were shown to provide an "average" level of protection.
From its launch in 1989, the Apollo was always less successful than the Camry from which it was based. By the end of 1993, the UAAI venture cars—the Holden Apollo and Nova, along with the Toyota Lexcen—realised sales of 21 percent at best when compared to the models retailed by their original manufactures. Apollo production in 1992 totalled 4,490 units (17.5 percent of the Toyota Camry figure, excluding exports); 5,314 Apollos were manufactured in 1993 (16.6 percent), and in 1994 production amounted to 5,519 units (13.1 percent). Thus, Apollo production ceased in late 1996 when Toyota and Holden severed their model sharing relations. Its replacement, the Opel Vectra B arrived in mid-1997 as the Holden Vectra and was also locally manufactured after several months of captive imports.
- ↑ Bebbington (1998), p. 125. "Holden's joint venture operation with Toyota began in 1987 and produced several shared models. The first of these was released in August 1989 as the Holden JK Apollo. Replacing the Camira, it was a rebadged Toyota Camry (SV21/22) with some minor differences in styling, mainly in grille and tail-light areas."
- ↑ Wright (1998), p. 277–278. "In May of 1984, the Minister for Industry in the Hawke Labor Government, Senator John Button, unveiled the federal government's new plan for the industry. It quickly became known as the 'Button Plan'. This blueprint was [...] to make the local industry more internationally competitive. [...] But its major thrusts were to lower tariffs and to reduce the number of different models manufactured locally from thirteen to six, shared between three production groups."
- ↑ McCarthy (1987), p. 37. "...the new Camry [...] replaces not only the old Camry but the Corona as well [... and] began taking shape four years ago. The Australian Camry's development program accounted for a total investment of $115 million, easily a record for a locally made Toyota. Part of the investment went to a major upgrading of AMI Toyota's manufacturing and assembly plant in Port Melbourne, and to re-tooling of the Altona panel-stamping and engine-building facility."
- ↑ Tuckey (1999), p. 168. "On Friday 11 December 1987 at 2.30 pm came the announcement: "Holden's Motor Company Ltd, AMI Toyota Ltd and Toyota Manufacturing Australia Ltd, are joining forces to create Australia's largest automotive group." [...] The press statement outlined plans to co-ordinate design, engineering and product sharing strategies while keeping marketing operations and dealer networks totally separate, and the decision was described as consistent with the Government's 'Button Plan' for forced rationalisation of the industry. [...] The join venture organisation was to be called United Australian Automobile Industries or UAAI."
- ↑ Truett (1997), p. 17. "[I]n 1988, Toyota and General Motors Holden established United Australian Automotive Industries (UAAI), a partial joint venture that cooperatively produced the Corolla/Nova, Camry/Apollo, and Commodore/Lexcen.
- ↑ Earl (2002), p. 29.
- ↑ Bebbington (1998), p. 125–126 "The Apollo [had a ...] multi-valve two-litre engine and five-speed manual transmission (or optional four-speed overdrive automatic). The engine had a two-barrel carburettor standard for all models except SLE, and an EFI system for the SLE only."
- ↑ "1989 Holden Apollo SL JK (Aug)". Red Book. Automotive Data Services. http://www.redbook.com.au/used-cars/details.aspx?R=68929&__Qpb=true&Cr=0&__Ns=p_Make_String%7c0%7c%7cp_ClassificationType_String%7c0%7c%7cp_Family_String%7c0%7c%7cp_Year_String%7c1%7c%7cp_SequenceNum_Int32%7c0&SearchAction=N&__N=2994%202952%204294958234%204294843464%204294956660%2072&seot=0&acv=Ikn-W3Zh_Lc.&silo=1300&__Nne=15&trecs=12&__sid=11E5A878D440. Retrieved 2009-04-11.
- ↑ "1989 Holden Apollo SLE JK (Aug)". Red Book. Automotive Data Services. http://www.redbook.com.au/used-cars/details.aspx?R=68933&__Qpb=true&Cr=5&__Ns=p_Make_String%7c0%7c%7cp_ClassificationType_String%7c0%7c%7cp_Family_String%7c0%7c%7cp_Year_String%7c1%7c%7cp_SequenceNum_Int32%7c0&SearchAction=N&__N=2994%202952%204294958234%204294843464%204294956660%2072&seot=0&acv=WQFpCyeoLGY.&silo=1300&__Nne=15&trecs=12&__sid=11E5A878D440. Retrieved 2009-04-11.
- ↑ Bebbington (1998), p. 127. "The EFI version of the two-litre twin-cam engine was made standard across the board, with the carburettored unit being deleted. (This actually occurred in May 1991, late in the JK Apollo's production run.)"
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 Bebbington (1998), p. 125. "The JK Apollo model lineup was as for the Camira with a four-door sedan and a wagon available in SL, SLX, SLE trim levels, with Executive variants of the SLX also offered. Power steering and automatic transmission were standard fitment on Executives and SLEs."
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 Bebbington (1998), p. 125. "Minor features: remote exterior mirrors (electric on SLE), intermittent windscreen wipers (variable on SLE), heated rear screen demister, remote boot release (sedans), [...] remote fuel filler door release, AM/FM electronic tuner/cassette (with four speakers on SLE), tinted side and rear window glass."
- ↑ Bebbington (1998), p. 127. "All models had specific wheel covers except for SLs, which had small centre caps."
- ↑ Bebbington (1998), p. 125–126. "SLE additional equipment included: electronic fuel injection, four-wheel disc brakes, body-coloured bumpers, twin trip meters in speedo, headlight auto cut off system, velour trim, rear seat centre armrest, power antenna, power door locks (central locking), front map lights, illuminated driver's door locks."
- ↑ "Holden—Apollo Vehicles". Product Safety Recalls Australia. Australian Competition and Consumer Commission. 1989-12-12. http://www.recalls.gov.au/content/index.phtml/itemId/954914/fromItemId/952863. Retrieved 2009-05-10.
- ↑ "Holden—Apollo JK SLE Sedan & Wagon". Product Safety Recalls Australia. Australian Competition and Consumer Commission. 1990-09-06. http://www.recalls.gov.au/content/index.phtml/itemId/954914/fromItemId/952863. Retrieved 2009-05-10.
- ↑ "Holden—Apollo JK—Rear Brake Hose". Product Safety Recalls Australia. Australian Competition and Consumer Commission. 1991-04-21. http://www.recalls.gov.au/content/index.phtml/itemId/954984/fromItemId/952863. Retrieved 2009-05-10.
- ↑ "Holden—Apollo JK—Rear Brake Hose". Product Safety Recalls Australia. Australian Competition and Consumer Commission. 1992-10-02. http://www.recalls.gov.au/content/index.phtml/itemId/954984/fromItemId/952863. Retrieved 2009-05-10.
- ↑ Bebbington (1998), p. 127. "The main changes were to the model lineup, although there were some minor appearance modifications."
- ↑ Bebbington (1998), p. 127–128. "The model range consisted of the SL, SLX and GS, all available in sedan or wagon guise, and the top-of-the-line SLE, in sedan form only. The Executive variants had gone and the GS models were introduced to give the Apollo a sporty flavour to its lineup. [...] equipment levels were similar to those of the previous JK series. The SLX's equipment levels were similar to that of the JK Executive, while the new GS's was close to JK SLE specification, without the automatic transmission. [...] Power steering was now fitted as standard equipment to all models except the SL."
- ↑ Bebbington (1998), p. 127. "External changes were kept to a minimum but additional chrome finish to the grille helped to distinguish it from the JK, and the tail-lights on sedans had the red tail/stop light lens now above the orange blinker lens."
- ↑ 22.0 22.1 "Used Car Safety Ratings 2008" (PDF). Monash University. http://www.infrastructure.gov.au/roads/safety/publications/2008/pdf/ucsr_08.pdf. Retrieved 2009-02-23.
- ↑ Bebbington (1998), p. 129. "March 1993 saw the introduction of the all-new, wide-bodied JM series Holden Apollo. Like the JK and JL that preceded it, the car was a rebadged Toyota Camry (Toyota's model code was SDV10/VDV10)."
- ↑ Kenwright, Joe (2004-09-01). "Toyota Camry (1987-1993)". Carsales. http://www.carsales.com.au/reviews/2004/medium-passenger/toyota/camry/toyota-camry-19871993-4227. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
- ↑ Carey (March 1993), p. 46. "Is size important? Now that Toyota's Camry has swollen, yes, it's very important. And, superficially, it's width, not length, that counts. The new Camry doesn't go anywhere without its Wide Body label. But behind the propaganda campaign is a product with more [...] space than before."
- ↑ Porter (1993), p. 123. "TOYOTA HAS spent millions getting its 'wide body' message through to potential Camry owners. But don't expect such hype for the badge engineered Holden Apollo. Holden's approach will be more subdued, in an attempt to steer the car away from [...] Toyota's marketing machine."
- ↑ Porter (1993), p. 123. "Following its shotgun marriage with Toyota, GMHA established Studio 6, a high-security design facility [...] to look after styling differentiation of shared models. The studio's autonomy and secrecy enabled Holden to source information on the 'wide-body' Camry as far back as '89 and start the process of giving the Apollo its own identity."
- ↑ Bebbington (1998), p. 129. "Holden had considerably more design input, with bonnet, grille and headlights differing from Toyota's version."
- ↑ Porter (1993), p. 123. "Holden stylists [have installed] shapelier headlamps and an extended front air dam, while the rear 'restyle' centres on altered tail-lights and repositioning of the number plate from bumper level to a 'garnish' panel between the extended lamp clusters."
- ↑ Porter (1993), p. 123. "Suspension settings and steering input were also left unaltered on the Apollo..."
- ↑ "1993 Holden Apollo SLX JM (Mar)". Red Book. Automotive Data Services. http://www.redbook.com.au/used-cars/details.aspx?R=69432&__sid=11FAE092D327&__Qpb=true&Cr=3&__Ns=p_Year_String. Retrieved 2009-04-11.
- ↑ Bebbington (1998), p. 129–130. "[The JM] came with the choice of a 2.2-litre twin-cam EFI four-cylinder engine or a three-litre quad-cam EFI V6."
- ↑ "1993 Holden Apollo SLX JM (Mar)". Red Book. Automotive Data Services. http://www.redbook.com.au/used-cars/details.aspx?R=69441&__sid=11E5A878D440&__Qpb=true&Cr=0&__Ns=p_Make_String%7c0%7c%7cp_ClassificationType_String%7c0%7c%7cp_Family_String%7c0%7c%7cp_Year_String%7c1%7c%7cp_SequenceNum_Int32%7c0&SearchAction=N&__N=2994%202952%204294958234%204294843464%204294956444%204294866132%204294965366&seot=0&__Nne=15&trecs=3&silo=1300. Retrieved 2009-04-11.
- ↑ Carey (July 1993), p. 106. "...the Toyota [Camry Vienta Executive V6] produced 139 kW..."
- ↑ Bebbington (1998), p. 129. "V6-engined cars could be identified externally by their 15-inch road wheels, compared to the 14-inch items used on the four-cylinder variants."
- ↑ Porter (1993), p. 123. "In conjunction with either the five speed manual or the four speed electronic transmission, the 2.2 litre engine offers flexible performance... If there's a jewel in the Apollo range, it has to be the 3.0 litre V6. Available in self-shifting guise only..."
- ↑ Porter (1993), p. 123. "Holden's attempt to infiltrate the fleet car market is obvious with the base SLX, equipped [... with] electric mirrors, remote boot and fuel release, stereo radio/cassette..."
- ↑ Bebbington (1998), p. 129. "Power steering standard on all models."
- ↑ Bebbington (1998), p. 129. "The new V6 [...] was offered on both sedans and on the GS wagon. [...] In the braking department, all except the four-cylinder SLXs featured four-wheel discs as standard (SLX fours had a front-disc/rear-drum arrangement), while ABS braking was an option. Wagons without ABS had a load-sensing proportioning valve to control rear brake lock-up."
- ↑ Porter (1993), p. 123. "The GS model increases the specification list to include a 60/40 split-fold rear seat, variable intermittent wipers, four speaker stereo, tacho, central locking, [...] and a more inviting interior decor."
- ↑ "Car review – Toyota Camry Vienta Executive sedan". GoAuto. John Mellor. http://www.goauto.com.au/mellor/mellor.nsf/story2/E31D9CA139928AAFCA256D750013E5D2. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
- ↑ Bebbington (1998), p. 129. "April 1994 saw small upgrades to equipment levels. These included two extra speakers for the sound system (the SLX now had four and the GS six), tachometer and rear mudflaps for the SLX and cruise control and power windows for the GS. A standard driver's side airbag for all models except the 2.2-litre SLX was added in June 1994."
- ↑ "Holden—Apollo". Product Safety Recalls Australia. Australian Competition and Consumer Commission. 1994-09-07. http://www.recalls.gov.au/content/index.phtml/itemId/955122/fromItemId/952863. Retrieved 2009-05-10.
- ↑ "Holden—Apollo Sedans – JM Series". Product Safety Recalls Australia. Australian Competition and Consumer Commission. 1995-06-21. http://www.recalls.gov.au/content/index.phtml/itemId/955172/fromItemId/952863. Retrieved 2009-05-10.
- ↑ "Holden—JM Series Apollo". Product Safety Recalls Australia. Australian Competition and Consumer Commission. 1996-03-15. http://www.recalls.gov.au/content/index.phtml/itemId/955219/fromItemId/952863. Retrieved 2009-05-10.
- ↑ Bebbington (1998), p. 131–132. "...the JP Apollo was [...] a minor facelift of the JM... Release dates: all models August 1995".
- ↑ Bebbington (1998), p. 131. "Holden's new redesigned lion logo made the JP easy to pick from its predecessor,a as did the white accent lines added to the tail-light clusters. The new grille showed a close family resemblance to the VR/VS Commodore, with two-U-shaped slots placed ether side of the central divider and the new lion badge on the bonnet."
- ↑ Bebbington (1998), p. 131. "The SLX came as a sedan or wagon, however the GS was only available in sedan guise. [...] The option lineup was also simplified with the five-speed manual now only available on 2.2-litre SLXs [...] Four-wheel disc brakes were fitted to all models and ABS was available on both models with either engine."
- ↑ Bebbington (1998), p. 132. "Minor features: remote central locking standard on all models, rear head restraints all models, GS had upgraded sound system."
- ↑ Kennedy, Ewan (2001-05-14). "Holden Apollo 1989-1997". Marque Publishing. http://www.marque.com.au/usedcars/010514_Holden_Apollo.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-09.
- ↑ Scott (1993), p. 19. "At best the badged models – Lexcen, Apollo and Nova – have achieved barely 21 per cent of the sales volumes of their original counterparts."
- ↑ Fujimoto, Takahiro (1995). "Toyota Motor Manufacturing Australia in 1995: An Emergent Global Strategy" (PDF). Archived from the original on 2011-03-19. http://www.webcitation.org/5xJZkwEEX.
- ↑ Bebbington (1998), p. 131. "Production of the JP ceased in late 1996, but the series continued to be sold until replaced by the Opel-designed JR Vectra in mid-1997."
- ↑ Morley, David (2005-01-19). "Holden Vectra". Drive. Fairfax Media. http://news.drive.com.au/drive/used-car-reviews/holden-vectra-20100824-13o12.html. Retrieved 2009-04-11.
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- McCarthy, Mike (May 1987). "Camry: Quietly Classy". Wheels magazine (Sydney, New South Wales: Australian Consolidated Press).
- Porter, Adam (April 1993). "Apollo Blast-Off". Wheels magazine (Sydney, New South Wales: ACP Publishing).
- Scott, Phil, ed. (November 1993). "Joint Venture Blues". Wheels magazine (Sydney, New South Wales: ACP Publishing).
- Truett, Dale; Truett, Lila (1997). "Australian Government Policies and the Balance of Trade Performance of the Transportation Equipment Industry: A Comparative Perspective". Comparative Economic Studies (Flushing, New York: Association for Comparative Economic Studies) 39 (1). ISSN 0888-7233. Archived from the original on 2011-03-19. http://www.webcitation.org/5xJaXKNa2.
|Holden, a subsidiary of General Motors, automobile timeline, 1948–present|
| List of Holden vehicles|
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