|2001-2003 Mazda Protegé sedan (US)|
It was marketed as the Familia in Japan. Earlier models also had nameplates including: 800, 1000, 1200, and 1300. In North America, early nameplates included GLC, with newer models becoming 323 and Protegé. In Europe, all models (exluding the earlier ones) were called 323. In South Africa, it was marketed as the Étude, and in Colombia the 8th generation was called Allegro.
The Familia line was replaced by the Mazda Axela in 2004.
- Mazda 323 2.0 EGI (1989) Specifications
- Mazda Familia 1000 Coup%C3%A9 (1968) Specifications
- Mazda Familia 1000 De Luxe Saloon (1967) Specifications
- Mazda Familia 1000 Saloon (1967) Specifications
- Mazda Familia Rotary SS (1972) Specifications
- Mazda Protege Automatic (2004) Specifications
- Mazda Protege (2004) Specifications
- Mazda 323 1.3 LX (1998) Specifications
- Mazda 323 1.3i 16V Hatchback (1989) Specifications
- Mazda 323 1.5 GLX Automatic (1998) Specifications
- Mazda 323 1.5 GLX (1998) Specifications
- Mazda 323 1.5 GLX (1985) Specifications
- Mazda 323 1.8 GLX Automatic (1998) Specifications
- Mazda 323 1.8 GLX (1998) Specifications
- Mazda 323 1.8 GT Hatchback (1989) Specifications
- Mazda 323 1.8 T16 GT-R (1992) Specifications
- Mazda 323 1000 Hatchback (1977) Specifications
- Mazda 323 2.0 Diesel LX (1998) Specifications
- Mazda 323 2.0 EGI (1989) Specifications
- Mazda 323 Astina 1.5 DOHC (1989) Specifications
- Mazda 323 Astina 1.6 DOHC (1989) Specifications
- Mazda 323 Astina 1.8 (1989) Specifications
- Mazda 323 Saloon 1.6 Automatic (2001) Specifications
- Mazda 323 Saloon 1.6 (2001) Specifications
- Mazda 323 Turbo 4X4 (1986) Specifications
- Mazda 323F 1.3 LX (1998) Specifications
- Mazda 323F 1.5 GLX Automatic (1998) Specifications
- Mazda 323F 1.5 GLX (1998) Specifications
- Mazda 323F 1.6 Automatic (2001) Specifications
- Mazda 323F 1.6 (2001) Specifications
- Mazda 323F 1.8 GLX Automatic (1998) Specifications
- Mazda 323F 1.8 GLX (1998) Specifications
- Mazda 323F 2.0 Automatic (2001) Specifications
- Mazda 323F 2.0 Diesel LX (1998) Specifications
- Mazda 323F 2.0 Turbodiesel (2001) Specifications
- Mazda 323F 2.0 Turbodiesel (2001) Specifications
- Mazda 323F 2.0 (2001) Specifications
- Mazda 323F GLX 2.0i V6 (1994) Specifications
- Mazda Protege Automatic (2004) Specifications
- Mazda Protege (2004) Specifications
First generation (1963–1968)
|Also called||Mazda 800/1000|
3-door station wagon
782 cc SA OHV I4|
985 cc PC SOHC I4 (Coupé)
987 cc PB OHV I4
|Wheelbase||2,190 mm (86.2 in)|
|Length||3,700 mm (145.7 in)|
|Width||1,465 mm (57.7 in)|
|Curb weight||720 kg (1,587 lb)|
Mazda's automotive plans for the early sixties consisted of growing alongside the Japanese economy. To achieve this goal, they began by building an extremely cheap Kei car, the R360 in 1960, planning on introducing gradually larger and pricier cars as the Japanese customers became able to afford them. As a preview, testing the waters, a larger "Mazda 700" prototype was shown at the 8th Tokyo Motor Show in 1961, and formed the basis for the upcoming Mazda Familia. Meanwhile, the slightly more upmarket Mazda Carol appeared in 1962.
The first production Familia, styled by young Giorgetto Giugiaro while working at Carrozzeria Bertone, appeared in October 1963. In line with Mazda's policy of only gradually approaching the production of private cars (a luxury in Japan at the time), the first Familia was initially only available as a commercial two-door wagon called the Familia Van. The van was joined in April 1964 by a plusher Familia Wagon, in October by a 4-door sedan, and in November by a two-door sedan. The "Flat Deck" design of the sedan versions was reportedly inspired by the Chevrolet Corvair. Private car versions received foglights in the grille as well as more chrome trim. The Familia was sold in other markets as the 800.
An all new Familia 1000 Coupé arrived in November 1965, with a 985 cc SOHC "PC" engine. Around the same time, the 800 engine was upgraded, adding three extra horsepower. As a number of new 1 liter vehicles were introduced by Mazda's competitors, another 987 cc OHV engine (PB) appeared in January 1967, powering new 1000 Sedan and Van versions. The 1 liter sedans and vans are recognizable by their broader, rounded-off rectangular headlights. Production of the sedan continued until November 1967, while the Van versions continued until they were replaced in February 1968. Around 400,000 of the first Familia were built, 130,473 of which were sedans and coupés. Around 10,000 of the first generation Familia were exported, mainly to Australia and Oceania.
Primary sources below are listed at the head of each column, information sourced elsewhere is referenced directly in the relevant cells. Data is for models as marketed in the Japanese domestic market.
|Mazda Familia (1st generation)|
|Familia (800) Van/Wagon||Familia 800 Sedan||Familia 1000 Van||Familia 1000 Sedan||Familia 1000 Coupé|
|Layout||Front engine, rear-wheel drive|
|Transmission||4-speed manual||4MT, 2-spd automatic||4-speed manual||4MT, 2-spd automatic||4-speed manual|
|Suspension F/R||Coil sprung independent by double wishbones / Live axle and semi-elliptic leaf springs|
|Brakes F/R||drums / drums||discs / drums|
|Wheelbase||2,140 mm (84.3 in)||2,190 mm (86.2 in)||2,140 mm (84.3 in)||2,190 mm (86.2 in)|
|Length||3,635 mm (143.1 in)|| 3,700 mm (145.7 in)
DX: 3,765 mm (148.2 in)
|3,635 mm (143.1 in)|| 3,700 mm (145.7 in)
DX: 3,765 mm (148.2 in)
|3,700 mm (145.7 in)|
|Width||1,465 mm (57.7 in)|
|Height||1,390 mm (54.7 in)||1,385 mm (54.5 in)||1,395 mm (54.9 in)||1,385 mm (54.5 in)||1,340 mm (52.8 in)|
|Empty weight|| Van: 715 kg (1,576 lb)
Wagon: 760 kg (1,676 lb)
| 720 kg (1,587 lb)
DX: 745 kg (1,642 lb)
|725 kg (1,598 lb) (deLuxe)|| 720 kg (1,587 lb)
DX: 740 kg (1,631 lb)
|790 kg (1,742 lb)|
|Water-cooled OHV inline-4, two valves per cylinder||SOHC inline-4|
|Displacement||782 cc (58.0 x 74.0 mm)||987 cc (68.0 x 68.0 mm)||985 cc (70.0 x 64.0 mm)|
|Compression||8.5:1 (1966–67: 9.0:1)||8.6:1||10.0:1|
|Power (SAE)||42 PS (31 kW) at 6,000 rpm (1966–67: 45 PS, 33 kW)||52 PS (38 kW) at 5,500 rpm||58 PS (43 kW) at 6,000 rpm||68 PS (50 kW) at 6,500 rpm|
|Torque|| 6.0 kg·m (59 N·m; 43 lb·ft) at 3,200 rpm
1966–67: 6.3 kg·m (62 N·m; 46 lb·ft) at 3,200 rpm
|8.0 kg·m (78 N·m; 58 lb·ft) at 3,000 rpm||7.9 kg·m (77 N·m; 57 lb·ft) at 3,500 rpm||8.1 kg·m (79 N·m; 59 lb·ft) at 4,600 rpm|
|Top Speed||105 km/h (65 mph)||115 km/h (71 mph)||125 km/h (78 mph)||135 km/h (84 mph)||145 km/h (90 mph)|
|Tires|| Wagon: 6.00 x 12 4PR
Van (f): 5.00 x 12 4PR Van (r): 5.00 x 12 6PR
|6.00 x 12 4PR|| front: 5.00 x 12 4PR
rear: 5.00 x 12 6PR
|6.00 x 12 4PR||6.15 x 13 4PR|
Second generation (1967–1977)
Mazda 1000 (Familia) 4-door sedan
Mazda 1000/1200/Mazda 1300|
2-door coupé 
2/4-door station wagon
987 cc PB I4|
1,169 cc TB I4 (pre-facelift)
1,272 cc TC I4
2 x 491 cc 10A rotary
2,260 mm (89.0 in)|
2,340 or 2,465 mm (92.1 or 97.0 in) (pickup)
|Length||3,845–4,160 mm (151.4–163.8 in)|
|Width||1,480 mm (58.3 in)|
|Curb weight||810 kg (1,786 lb)|
The new Familia appeared in 1967 with the same pushrod 987 cc engine as used in the previous generation sedans. It was sold as the Mazda 1000 in some markets. A larger 1,169 cc I4 engined version came along later, becoming the Mazda 1200 for export. In this form, the car was first exhibited in Europe at the 1968 Paris Motor Show in the Autumn/Fall of that year.
From 1970 on the Familia was also available with the new overhead camshaft 1.3 L TC engine, derived from the smaller 1 liter OHC engine already seen in the first generation Familia Coupé. This, exported as the Mazda 1300, replaced the 1200 model in most markets. The sedan and coupé were updated in the autumn of 1973, but the truck and wagon/van versions continued with little change. The vans and pickup trucks actually soldiered on until 1978, by which time a Van/Wagon version of the succeeding FA4 Familia (323/GLC) had been introduced. The later pickup versions were also available in a long-wheelbase version, and featured a 85 PS (63 kW) (SAE) version of the 1.3-litre TC engine, unaffected by the tighter Japanese emissions standards for passenger cars.
Engines (export power outputs):
- 1968–1973 – 1.0 L (987 cc) PB I4, 50 hp (37 kW; 51 PS) / 56 ft·lb (76 N·m)
- 1968–1970 – 1.2 L (1,169 cc) TB I4, 58 hp (43 kW; 59 PS) / 94 ft·lb (127 N·m)
- 1970–1973 – 1.3 L (1,272 cc) TC I4, 2 barrel, 69 hp (51 kW; 70 PS) / 67 ft·lb (91 N·m)
The "1200" was offered in the United States in 1971 and again for the 1973 model year. The 1971 version was the first piston-powered Familia sold in the United States and arrived alongside its rotary R100 counterpart in two- and four-door forms. It was replaced by the somewhat larger 808 (Grand Familia) the next year. The 1200 model returned for 1973 as the base-model economy Mazda. The company then focused on performance for the next two years, dropping the economy car. After the gas crisis they returned to the economy sector with the Mizer in 1976, a rebadged 808.
- 1971, 1973 – 1.2 L (1,169 cc) I4, 58 hp (43 kW; 59 PS) / 69 ft·lb (94 N·m)
In 1968 Mazda added a Familia Rotary model to the range, offered in both two-door coupé and four-door sedan variants. The Familia Rotary was powered by a 2 x 491 cc 10A Rotary engine and the coupé version was sold outside of Japan as the Mazda R100. Production ended in 1973.
The September 1973 Familia Presto (FA3) was an updated version of the second generation Mazda Familia, with somewhat wider bodywork and reworked front and rear designs. These changes were made only to the sedans and coupé, with the van/wagon and trucks retaining the original bodywork. Developed to meet new stricter emissions standards in the domestic market, the Presto featured the 1,272 cc TC engine or the by now familiar pushrod 1 liter PB unit. Power outputs in Japan (gross) were 83 PS (61 kW) and 62 PS (46 kW) respectively. The Rotary Coupé was discontinued, having been replaced by the larger Grand Familia-based RX-3/Savanna.
Production of the second generation Familia ended in January 1977, but not before another minor facelift and emissions scrubbing had taken place in February 1976. After this change, only the larger engine was available, now with 72 PS and labelled Familia Presto 1300AP (for "Anti Pollution").
Facelifted Kia Brisa 1000
From October 1974 until 1981, Kia Motors manufactured a variant of the second generation Familia as the Kia Brisa at their first integrated automobile manufacturing facility, the Sohari Plant in Gwangmyeong, South Korea. Production originally commenced in 1973 in the form of the Brisa B-1000 pickup truck, but passenger car production (originally as the "Brisa S-1000") only commenced later. Brisa comes from the Portuguese word for "breeze". Originally equipped with a 62 PS (46 kW) 1 litre Mazda engine, the bigger 1.3-litre version with 72 PS (53 kW) arrived in October 1975 as a response to Hyundai's successful Pony. A station wagon model was added in 1978. Production came to an end after the new military dictator Chun Doo-hwan enforced industry consolidation, meaning Kia had to give up passenger cars and focus entirely on light trucks.
A facelifted version of the Brisa received a slightly different front end from the original Familia, featuring twin headlights. In total, 31,017 Brisa passenger cars were built. Including the pickups increases the totals to 75,987, of which a total of 1,526 were exported. Exports, Kia's first, began with a shipment of 31 Brisa B-1000 pickups to Qatar in 1975. The larger Grand Familia/818 was also built by Kia with the 1,272 cc engine, originally as the Brisa II and later as the K303.
Third generation (1977–1980)
Mazda MR90, Baby Boomers
January 1977–1980 (hatchback)|
June 1978–1986 (wagon)
3-door station wagon/van
5-door station wagon
985 cc PC I4|
1,272 cc TC I4
1,415 cc UC I4
1,490 cc E5 I4 (wagon only)
1,597 cc 4G32 I4 (SA)
|Wheelbase||2,311 mm (91.0 in)|
|Length||3,820 mm (150.4 in)|
|Width||1,595 mm (62.8 in)|
|Curb weight||812 kg (1,790 lb)|
The Familia AP (323 in most of the world, GLC or Great Little Car in North America) debuted in January 1977 as a rear-wheel-drive subcompact, replacing both the Grand Familia (818) and the preceding Familia (1000/1300). There was a choice of hatchbacks and station wagon bodies, both available with a 3- or 5-door bodystyle. The Station Wagon/Van version was a bit later, first being introduced in June 1978, which also meant that the commercial versions based on the 1970 Familia could finally be retired. Three Mazda engines were available, the 985 cc PC, 1,272 cc TC, or 1,415 cc UC. The little one-liter unit was only made for export markets. The new Familia shared many parts with the older Mazda Grand Familia. This was the first appearance of the 323 name, for export markets only.
In June 1979 the 323/Familia underwent a facelift, replacing the previous round headlights with rectangular units which were designed as a single unit along with the grille. Other minor differences occurred along with the facelift. In South Africa a 1,600 cc model was available – however this model did not have a Mazda engine, unlike the rest of the range. To satisfy that country's local content regulations, a Mitsubishi Saturn 1.6-litre unit was used.
The range was replaced in 1980, however the station wagon models continued in production until 1986. In 1981 a facelift was given to the wagon range, to give a front end treatment similar to Mazda's front-wheel drive 323/Familia range.
It was available in several body variants:
- Five-door four-seat hatch.
- Three-door four-seat hatch.
- Five-door four-seat station wagon (also as a van in Japan).
- Three-door four-seat station wagon.
- Three-door two-seat van with an extended roof profile.
Several of these were available in several trim levels.
- 1.0 L PC, 45 PS (33 kW; 44 hp) / 51 ft·lb (69 N·m) – export only
- 1.3 L TC (1977.01–1978) 60 PS (44 kW; 59 hp) / 72 PS (53 kW) in Japan
- 1.4 L UC (1978.03–1980) 83 PS (61 kW) in Japan
- 1.5 L E5 (1983–1986) 70 PS (51 kW) (DIN, wagon/van only)
A five-speed manual gearbox was introduced later as an alternative to the original four-speed manual gearbox. At the same time the original 7-inch (178 mm) round sealed beam headlights were replaced with square sealed beam units on all models except the van, together with a general styling and mechanical upgrade. A three-speed automatic gearbox was also available throughout the model run.
When the next generation front-wheel-drive Familia/323/GLC models were released in 1980, the wagon and van models continued unchanged, due to Mazda not developing wagon models for the newer range. A facelift however was given to the wagons in 1981, which gave the models the front clip (albeit with different bumpers) of the front-wheel-drive models. Production of the wagons continued to 1986, when a new front-wheel-drive model was introduced. Originally available with the 1.3 litre TC and 1.4 litre UC engines, the larger unit was replaced with the new 1.5 liter E5 engine for the 1983 model year.
For the United States, the GLC, advertised as the Great Little Car, was only offered with one engine at a time. The new GLC overlapped with the old-style Mizer for part of 1977 and was produced through 1980 before being replaced by the next-generation GLC. The marketing campaign in the U.S. had the words "Great Little Car" set to the tune of Spanish Flea.
In Indonesia the Familia was marketed by IndoMobil Group as the Mazda MR90 (hatchback) between 1990 and 1992, Baby Boomers (hatchback) between 1993 and 1995, and as the Vantrend (station wagon) between 1993 and 1997. The versions built by Mazda Motor Indonesia used the larger Mazda 626's "GC" platform, and later versions had modernized headlights (same as on the North American market GC 626) and bumpers. Only the UC 1.4-litre engine was offered, in combination with a five-speed transmission.
Fourth generation (BD; 1980–1984)
1.1 L E1 I4|
1.3 L E3 I4
1.5 L E5 I4
The BD Familia, first shown on 2 June 1980, was entirely new – it was Mazda's first front-engine, front-wheel drive subcompact car. It was available as a hatchback and sedan. It was developed with input from Ford, which in 1979 had acquired a stake in the Japanese manufacturer, and had a twin called the Ford Laser (and Ford Meteor, for its four-door model in Australia). The new Mazda E engine-series, losely based on the preceding PC/TC/UC series, was developed expressly for the BD and was offered in three different displacements. The smallest 1.1-liter E1 unit was reserved for certain export markets where the tax structures suited it. Chassis codes were BD1011/BD1031/BD1051 depending on the engine installed.
- 1.1 L (1,071 cc) E1, 1 barrel, 55 PS (40 kW; 54 hp) / 58 ft·lb (79 N·m)
- 1.3 L (1,296 cc) E3, 2 barrel, 68 PS (50 kW; 67 hp) / 70 ft·lb (95 N·m)
- 1.5 L (1,490 cc) E5, 2 barrel, 75 PS (55 kW; 74 hp) / 85 ft·lb (115 N·m)
- 1.5 L (1,490 cc) E5S, 2x2 barrel, 85 PS (63 kW; 84 hp) / 88 ft·lb (119 N·m)
For the Japanese market two other top end models were offered, the 2-door Familia XGI with a 1,500 cc single cam, multi-point fuel-injected engine and an XGI Turbo R with a turbo added. Its twin the Ford Laser S were also offered with the same specifications but in limited numbers. Claimed outputs in the Japanese market were considerably higher, presumably due to the of the differing JIS standard rather than DIN.
This particular Familia was a strong comeback for Mazda in the Japanese market, even outselling the Toyota Corolla on several occasions. The four-door sedan was equipped with a reverse-rake front grille and lights in the Japanese market, to make it appear more "senior". The same front design was used for the GA/GB Ford Meteor.
The 1980 Familia/323 was the first front-engine, front-wheel-drive vehicle from Mazda since the R130. This generation of 323 was Wheels magazine's Car of the Year for 1980. The existing station wagon version, simply a facelifted version of the previous rear-drive model (fitted with the square headlights and grille from the new model), was sold in parallel with the BD. The wagon was available with either three or five doors and was equipped either with the old 1,272 cc TC engine or the 1,415 cc UC. The 1.4 was replaced from 1983 with the newly developed 1,490 cc E5 engine. The 1.3 produces 60 PS (44 kW) while the larger versions offer 70 PS (51 kW).
The equivalent American GLC appeared in 1981. It was only offered with a single engine (the 2 barrel 1.5 L) and lasted through 1985, after which it was replaced by the next-generation Mazda 323 and the GLC nameplate was retired. It was the only front-wheel drive Mazda vehicle using the GLC name.
Fifth generation (BF; 1985–1989)
|Production||1985–1989,1986–2004 in Colombia|
Silverton, South Africa
5-door station wagon
2-door pickup (South Africa)
FF layout |
1.5 L E5 I4|
1.6 L B6 I4
1.6 L B6T I4 turbo
1.7 L PN I4 diesel
4 or 5-speed manual
|Wheelbase||2,400 mm (94.5 in)|
Hatchback: 4,110 mm (161.8 in) |
Sedan & Wagon: 4,310 mm (169.7 in)
|Width||1,645 mm (64.8 in)|
Sedan & Hatchback: 1,390 mm (54.7 in)|
Wagon: 1,430 mm (56.3 in)
|Curb weight||936 kg (2,064 lb)|
In January 1985, the fifth generation Familia/323 featured many updates. It was available as a hatchback or sedan only for the first year, a wagon being added in November 1985. In January 1987 a personal coupé version with its own bodywork, the Étude, was added. In February 1987 the Familia range underwent a light facelift that included replacing the old E engines with the more modern B series.
The 1985 Familia spawned a Ford Laser twin sold in the Asia-Pacific. The Laser sedan and wagon were nearly identical to the Familia but with a Ford grille. By contrast the Laser hatchback model, which was sold in the U.S. as the Mercury Tracer used completely different panels from the Familia's.
This generation of the Familia/323 was also available in a version with a turbocharged DOHC engine, with either front- or four-wheel drive. The 4WD version, introduced in October 1985, saw some success in rally's Group A category. Regular GTX's (GT-X in Japan) produced 140 PS (103 kW). A limited production homologation special, the GT-Ae, appeared in May 1988 and offered an additional ten horsepower. There was also a 1.7-litre diesel version available with 58 PS (43 kW) at 4,300 rpm and 112 N·m (83 ft·lb) at 2,800 rpm. It is an indirect injection engine, naturally aspirated.
This generation was sold through the 1989 model year in the United States. The wagon continued alongside the succeeding generation in most markets until 1994/95, later updated with a new grille and lights.
The model remained in production in South Africa, as an entry-level model, also being sold as the Ford Tonic until 2003. A locally designed pick-up based on the Familia front end, called the Rustler was also produced, and sold as the Ford Bantam. From 1991 to 1994 Samcor also produced and sold the 323 with the 2.0 L 16-valve DOHC FE engine from the Mazda 626 and badged it 200i. Along with the 2.0 L 16-valve DOHC engine there were upgrades to the suspension and braking system. Still, the 1.6-litre GT-Ae homologation car was more powerful.
In 1991, the South African-made model was exported to the United Kingdom as the Sao Penza and fitted with a 1.3 L fuel-injected engine. This South African built model was also sold in Australia between 1989 and 1991 with minor changes, the most noticeable one being the front indicators having a clear color rather than the normal amber. These models where labeled BF as opposed to the next generation's BG.
- 1985–1987 – 1.1 L (1,100 cc) E1, 2 barrel, 8-valve, 55 hp (41 kW; 56 PS) / 59 ft·lb (80 N·m)
- 1985–1987 – 1.3 L (1,300 cc) E3, 2 barrel, 8-valve, 68 hp (51 kW; 69 PS) / 71 ft·lb (96 N·m)
- 1987–1989 – 1.3 L (1,300 cc) B3, 2 barrel, 8-valve, 66 PS (49 kW; 65 hp) / 74 ft·lb (100 N·m)
- 1985–1987 – 1.5 L (1,500 cc) E5, 2 barrel or EGi, 8-valve, 85 PS (63 kW)/12.3 kg·m (121 N·m) (JDM EGi)
- 1985–1987 – 1.5 L (1,500 cc) E5T, turbo EGi, 8-valve, 115 PS (85 kW)/16.5 kg·m (162 N·m) (JDM only)
- 1987–1989 – 1.5 L (1,500 cc) B5, 2 barrel, 12-valve, 73 hp (54 kW; 74 PS) / 81 ft·lb (110 N·m)
- 1985–1989 – 1.6 L (1,600 cc) B6, 8-valve, 103 hp (77 kW; 104 PS) / 98 ft·lb (133 N·m)
- 1985–1989 – 1.6 L (1,600 cc) B6T, turbo, 16-valve, 143 hp (107 kW; 145 PS) / 138 ft·lb (187 N·m)
- 1985–1989 – 1.7 L (1,700 cc) PN, Diesel, 8-valve, 57 hp (43 kW; 58 PS) / 107 ft·lb (145 N·m)
- 1991–1994 – 2.0 L (2,000 cc) FE-DOHC, EFi, 16-valve, 146 hp (109 kW; 148 PS) (South Africa only)
Sixth generation (BG; 1989–1994)
Top: 1989-1991 sedan (US)
Bottom: 1991-1994 sedan (US)
|Layout||Front-engine, front-wheel drive / All-wheel drive|
1.3 L B3 I4|
1.5 L B5 I4
1.6 L B6 I4
1.8 L SOHCB8 I4
1.8 L DOHC BP I4
1.8 L DOHC turbo BPT I4
1.7 L PN I4 Diesel
4-speed F-4EAT automatic
Hatchback: 2,450 mm (96.5 in) |
Sedan: 2,500 mm (98.4 in)
Hatchback: 4,155 mm (163.6 in)|
Sedan: 4,355 mm (171.5 in)
Sedan & 1993–94 Hatchback: 1,675 mm (65.9 in) |
1990–92 Hatchback: 1,670 mm (65.7 in)
1993–94 Hatchback: 1,345 mm (53.0 in) |
1993–94 Sedan: 1,340 mm (52.8 in)
1990–92 Hatchback: 1,380 mm (54.3 in)
1990–92 Sedan: 1,375 mm (54.1 in)
AWD Sedan: 1,385 mm (54.5 in)
|Curb weight||1,070 kg (2,359 lb)|
Mazda Familia Astina|
Ford Escort/Ford Escort ZX2
The sixth generation of Familia included a 3-door hatchback, 5-door fastback, and 4-door sedan variants, none of which shared any body panels. The new 5-door fastback version was called the Familia Astina in Japan and was sold as the 323F or 323 Astina elsewhere. The BF wagon (originally introduced in 1985) was carried over in facelifted form, although Ford marketed a wagon on the new platform as part of the North American Escort line.
The 1989/1990 BG Familia was available in hatchback or sedan formats, with front- or All-wheel drive and a 1.3 L, 1.5 L, 1.6 L, or 1.8 L gas or 1.7 L diesel engine. In North America, the 323 sedan became the Protegé, while the 323 hatchback kept its name.
The GT model, only sold in Canada in 1990, 1991, and 1993, came with the 1.8 BP engine also found on the 1991–94 Ford Escort GT. It borrowed the interior from the GTX model, and had all factory options including a rear trunk spoiler that not available in the U.S. Ford also had a twin called the Laser in the Asian Pacific for this generation, but sold it in the United States as the Escort. It no longer resembled the Mazda versions externally. The Kia Sephia also used the hardware of this generation Familia.
In Japan, the 5-door hatchback, featuring a distinct front end with pop-up headlights, was sold as the Mazda Familia Astina and (Japanese: Eunos 100). Trim lines in Japan included Clair, Interplay, Supreme, "Pepper", and GT-X. In Europe, this model variant was badged as Mazda 323F. It was available with the 1.6 or the 16-valve 1.8-litre engines.
In America, the LX version of the Protegé included a 125 horsepower (93 kW) engine.Template:Citation needed LX models also had 14-inch (360 mm) wheels, front and rear disc brakes, and dual stabilizer bars.
In New Zealand, all BG models that were manufactured in New Zealand came with glass headlights instead of plastic, and a 240 km/h speedometer.
Production of the 1994 model ended on May 24, 1994.
- 1989–1991 – 1.6 L (1,600 cc) B6, 1 barrel, 8-valve, 85 hp (63 kW; 86 PS) / 92 ft·lb (125 N·m)
- 1989–1994 – 1.8 L (1,800 cc) B8, FI, 16-valve SOHC, 103 hp (77 kW; 104 PS) / 108 ft·lb (146 N·m)
- 1989–1994 – 1.8 L (1,800 cc) BP, FI, 16-valve DOHC, 125 hp (93 kW; 127 PS) / 118 ft·lb (160 N·m)
- 1989–1994 – 1.8 L (1,800 cc) BPT, FI, 16-valve DOHC, turbo, 185 hp (138 kW; 188 PS) / 235 N·m (173 ft·lb) (Familia GTX)
- 1991–1994 – 1.8 L (1,800 cc) B8, FI, 16-valve SOHC, 103 hp (77 kW)
- 1992–1993 – 1.8 L (1,800 cc) BPD, FI, 16-valve DOHC, turbo, 209 hp (156 kW)(255 N·m) Powered the Familia GT-R & GT-Ae
- 1990–1993 – 1.3 L (1,300 cc) B3, 1 barrel, 75 hp (56 kW; 76 PS) / 76 ft·lb (103 N·m)
- 1990–1993 – 1.7 L (1,700 cc) PN, Diesel, 8-valve, 57 hp (43 kW; 58 PS) / 79 ft·lb (107 N·m)
The Mazda Familia Infini was produced from 1989 to 1990 as a special Japan only special sport trim line of the 4-door Familia. Much of the Infini trim is similar to the American LX version, equipped with the 1.8 DOHC BP-ZE engine and 5-speed manual. The Infini was upgraded with a viscous limited slip differential, tightened suspension package, and bonnet/headlight style similar to the 323 hatchbacks. In 1994, these were facelifts were adopted to all Familia sedan models. The Infini came only in dark green color with unique Infini trim grille, rear spoiler, "lightweight" carpet, without sound deadener, and with Infini (∞) logos on horn button, front grille, wheel caps, and bootlid. There were also unique factory front clear indicators, a Momo steering wheel, BBS 15" rims, suede interior with GTX style seat trim, leather gearboot & knob, front and rear strut braces, 22 mm sway bars front fron rear, rear tie bar, 180 kmh speedometer and 7100 rpm redline tachometer, as well as 250 mm 4-wheel disc brakes. Around 1,000 Infinis were produced.
Familia GTX, GTR and GT-Ae
The JDM GTX model featured four-wheel drive, viscous limited slip differentials and a turbocharged 1.8 L BP engine. In the U.S. the Protegé came with a 1.8 L non-turbocharged engine, along with 4WD. The JDM GT-R rally homologation version was added in 1992, featuring a number of enhancements over the GTX model: a stronger gearbox (G5M-R), an aggressive front bumper, grill and bonnet vents, updated rear bumper, wheel flares, stiffer suspension and anti-roll bars with thicker cross members, and homologated five-stud wheel hubs with larger brakes. The interior was fitted with leather and suede seats, and had the option of replacing the cupholder with a 3 gauge cluster. In addition, the GTR has stronger connecting rods and pistons, larger oil squirters, larger nose crank, larger oil cooler, sodium filled valves, a baffled inlet manifold, larger injectors (from 330cc (black) to 440cc (orange)), removed boost cut, front-mounted intercooler, and a IHI VJ-23 ball bearing watercooled turbocharger. Both the GTX and GTR models were limited to a top speed of 180kph. However, removing a screw on the back of the instrument cluster, labeled 180kph, meant that the speed limiter was removed.
The GT-R produced 210 PS (154 kW) compared to the GTX with 185 PS (136 kW). 300 special version GT-R's were produced known as GT-Ae's. These shared the power output of the GT-R, but were 30 kg (66 lb) lighter, fitted with closer ratio gearboxes, and featured a larger top spoiler with a gap between the hatch and the spoiler to direct air to the new lower spoiler. The wiring for ABS, A/C, power mirrors, power windows, power locks, and sunroof was removed. Instead of using the GTR's leather interior, the lighter cloth interior of the GTX was used.
A sporty, 5-door hatchback version was called the Familia Astina in Japan. Elsewhere, it was called 323F and 323 Astina.
Seventh generation (BH; 1994–1998)
Top: 1994-1996 Mazda Protegé (US)
Bottom: 1996–1998 Mazda Protegé LX (US)
|Production||1994–1998, 1995–1999 in Colombia, 1996–2000 in the Philippines|
Pretoria, South Africa,
Paranaque, Philippines (Columbian Autocar Corporation)
3-door hatchback (Neo)|
4-door sedan (Protegé/Familia)
4-door hardtop sedan (Lantis)
5-door hatchback (Lantis/Astina)
1.3 L B3 I4|
1.5 L Z5 I4
1.5 L B5 I4
1.8 L BP I4
1.7 L 4EE1 I4 Diesel
4-speed F-4EAT automatic|
Hatchback: 2,450 mm (96 in)|
1997–98 Sedan: 2,607 mm (102.6 in)
Hatchback: 4,155 mm (163.6 in)|
1997–98 Sedan: 4,440 mm (175 in)
1995–96 Sedan: 4,435 mm (174.6 in)
1997–98 Sedan: 1,710 mm (67 in)|
1995–96 Sedan: 1,694 mm (66.7 in)
Hatchback: 1,670 mm (66 in)
1995–96 ES Sedan: 1,381 mm (54.4 in)|
1997–98 Sedan: 1,420 mm (56 in)
1995–96 Sedan: 1,386 mm (54.6 in)
Hatchback: 1,380 mm (54 in)
The BH model was released for the Japanese Domestic Market in 1994 with both front-wheel drive and all-wheel drive. Production of this generation started on August 8, 1994, and ceased on June 18, 1998.
An unusual JDM model appeared in 1994, with the cancellation of the 1985-generation station wagon. The Mazda Familia Van offered after this year was a rebadged Nissan Wingroad/Sunny California, which was essentially the station wagon version of the Nissan Sunny.
The rare North American ES model came with the Miata's 1.8-liter twin-cam engine (though the internals were not the same), 4-wheel disc brakes, and dual stabilizer bars. The same car went on sale in Australia in second half of 1994. with fully featured BP-ZE engine. The Protegé became a "compact car" for the 1995 model year in North America.
The Familia/Protegé/323 was facelifted in 1996, with a newer style.
- 1994–1998 – 1.5 L (1,500 cc) Z5, FI, 16-valve DOHC, 89 hp (66 kW; 90 PS) / 97 ft·lb (132 N·m)
- 1994–1996 – 1.8 L (1,800 cc) B8, 114 hp (85 kW; 116 PS) / 115 ft·lb (156 N·m)
- 1994–1996 – 2.0 L (2,000 cc) KF V6, FI, 24-valve DOHC, 144 hp (107 kW; 146 PS) / 132 ft·lb (179 N·m)
- 1995–1999 – 1.3 L (1,300 cc) B3, 74 hp (55 kW; 75 PS) / 77 ft·lb (104 N·m)
- 1995–1999 – 1.8 L (1,800 cc) BP, FI, 16-valve DOHC, 131 hp (98 kW; 133 PS) / 118 ft·lb (160 N·m)
- 1995–1999 – 2.0 L (2,000 cc) RF, Diesel, 8-valve, 71 hp (53 kW; 72 PS) / 94 ft·lb (127 N·m)
- 4-door sedan (called the Protegé in North America, 323S in Europe, 323-Protegé in Australia and Étude in South Africa)
- 3-door hatchback (Familia Neo in Japan, 323C and 323P (323P being a hatchback version of 323S) in Europe, Laser Lynx as a Ford)
- A tall wagon, called the Familia Van, was also available in Japan.
- '95-'96 Mazda Protege.jpg
1994-1996 Mazda Protegé (Canada)
- 1994-1996 Mazda 323 Protegé (BA) sedan 03.jpg
1994-1996 Mazda 323 Protegé (Australia)
The Familia Neo started production for the Japanese domestic market in 1994. Ford released a rebadged version which was mechanically the same although different bumpers, headlights and bonnet were fitted, badged as the Ford Laser Lynx in Japan and Australia. This model was only available as the Ford Laser-Lynx in the Australian market, as Mazda already had the 323 Astina Hatch filling the gap for a hatchback in the Mazda range. Oddly enough to contradict this, Mazda Australia also offered two 323 sedans, the Astina/Lantis hardtop and the 323 Protegé until production of both models ceased in 1998.
This was released new in New Zealand as the Mazda Familia Neo. It featured a rear hatch with a divided glass, much like the Honda CR-X. Aesthetically the Familia Neo was very close in looks to a Mazda Lantis/323F and equated to a 2-door version and also shared the Lantis suspension. The top spec Mazda Neo was fitted with a DOHC 1800 cc BP engine which produced around 112 PS (82 kW), and this was the same engine fitted to the base model Mazda Lantis. It was also sold for a single year (1995) in Canada as 323 Neo GS. In Europe it was named Mazda 323C (for coupé) and it was equipped with 1.3 L SOHC (75 HP), 1.5 L DOHC 16V (88 HP), and 1.8 L DOHC 16V (112 HP) engine.
A five-door hatchback and four-door sedan, both featuring pillarless doors and distinct sheetmetal from other 323s, was sold in Japan as the Mazda Lantis, in Australia and South Africa as the Mazda 323 Astina, in Colombia as the Mazda Allegro and in Europe as the Mazda 323F.
They were built on platforms distinct from the other 323s. The bodyshape was designed by former Porsche designers. The Lantis was on the CB, a minor update of the CA that underpinned the luxury Mazda Xedos 6 and Eunos 500. The European 323F was designated BA, but was actually almost identical to the CB, and had little to do with other B platforms. These models were sold with the 1.5 L and 1.8 L engines seen in the rest of the 323 range, as well as a 2.0 L V6 shared with the Eunos 500.
Eighth generation (BJ; 1998–2003)
Top:1998-2001 Mazda Protegé sedan (US)
Bottom: 2001–2003 Mazda Protegé sedan (Canada)
Mazda Isamu Genki (Taiwan)
|Production||1998–2003, 2003–present in, Taiwan, Philippines, China, and Colombia.|
Pretoria, South Africa
5-door wagon (Nissan Wingroad based)
Four-wheel drive (Sport 20)
|Engine||FS-DET Turbo DOHC I4|
4-speed 4F27E automatic
|Wheelbase||2,610 mm (103 in)|
1999–2000 Protegé: 174.0 in (4,420 mm)|
2001–03 Protegé: 175.3 in (4,453 mm)
Protegé5: 170.5 in (4,331 mm)
2001–03 Wagon: 4,265 mm (167.9 in) 1999–2000 Wagon: 4,215 mm (165.9 in)
2001–03 Sedan: 4,365 mm (171.9 in)
1999–2000 Sedan: 4,315 mm (169.9 in)
Mazdaspeed & MP3: 4,435 mm (174.6 in)
|Width||1,705 mm (67.1 in)|
Sedan: 1,410 mm (56 in)|
Wagon: 1,470 mm (58 in)
Mazdaspeed & MP3: 55.3 in (1,405 mm)
FAW Haima Family
A redesigned eighth generation BJ Familia was introduced on June 9, 1998 and released on September 29, 1998 as a 1999 model. Body styles included a 4-door sedan, 5-door S-Wagon (sold as the Protegé5 in the United States and Canada, and Astina NU in some Asian countries), 3-door hatchback, and traditional 5-door Wagon. A 4EC automatic transmission and two 5-speed manual transmissions were available. All-wheel drive is optional.
The 1999 BJ platform was updated with a 4-door sedan or 5-door hatchback chassis based on the larger Mazda 626 and offered with more engine choices. The Japanese Mazda Familia had all-wheel drive as an option. In America, the ES's engine was still 1.8 liters, but for the eighth generation it was a smaller version of the 626's engine (the FP) rather than the sportier engine shared with the Miata which had been used previously. The rear disc brakes of the ES were downgraded to drums.
New 2001 model
In 2001, the entire line was facelifted with new styling, a revised suspension, and a new audio system. ES models received rear disc brakes and a stiffer suspension. The 1.8 L engine was increased to 2.0 L for the ES models, and was optional on the LX model, becoming the 2.0LX. The standard 2001 Protegé LX engine was the carryover 1.6 L ZM-DE.
A 2.0 L gas engine appeared in 2001 on the Japanese market Sport 20. A tall wagon version of the Familia called the Mazda Premacy was sold in Japan as the Ford Ixion. In 1999, Ford of Japan ceased to market Mazda-based models, and the Ford Laser, along with the Ixion, Telstar and Festiva, was dropped.
For the 2001 model year in North America, Mazda introduced the limited-edition Protegé MP3 featuring a new sport-tuned suspension, 17-inch Racing Hart wheels, and a 10 hp (7 kW; 10 PS) gain for a total of 140 hp (104 kW; 142 PS), which was achieved through a tuned factory ECU which advances ignition timing requiring high octane rating gasoline, cat-back exhaust by Racing Beat, and removal of the Mazda VTCS system. The MP3 also came from the factory with a complete 450-watt Kenwood powered MP3 stereo with 10-inch (250 mm) powered subwoofer. A total of 1,500 were produced – 1,000 finished in blue, and 500 painted yellow.
2001 saw the introduction of a station wagon version called Protegé5 with the same 2.0 L engine offering 130 hp (97 kW; 132 PS) / 135 ft·lb (183 N·m) this year and a slightly revised interior.
In 2002, most Protegés (including the 5) received the 2.0 L engine, although the SE in Canada had the 1.6 L.
In 2003, Mazdaspeed introduced the Mazdaspeed Protegé, an update to the Protegé MP3 that had a 170 hp (127 kW; 172 PS) / 160 ft·lb (217 N·m) turbocharged engine, shared the MP3's full Racing Beat suspension, redesigned 17-inch (430 mm) wheels, larger four-wheel disc brakes, and a Kenwood stereo system that included an amplifier along with a rear-deck mounted 8-inch (200 mm) sub. Mazda then followed with a mid year change dubbed the "2003.5." This model included a different aero-kit, the same 17-inch (430 mm) Racing Hart wheels, but with a darker color, and custom interior pieces. In total, there were 4,500 Mazdaspeed Protegé models produced of which 1,750 were painted Black/Orange for first version and 2,750 of the mid-year model that were finished in Yellow/Titanium/Blue/Silver.
The 2003 ES model received a tiptronic automatic transmission as an option, as well as a new wheel design appearing on models with the 15-inch (380 mm) alloy rim option. This was also the last year of production for the Protegé.
Production ended on October 2, 2003 and the whole Familia line were replaced by the Axela/Mazda3 in early 2004. The Axela/Mazda3 comes in both 4-door sedan and 5-door hatchback varieties, with a 2.0-litre engine on the 3i sedan and a 2.3-litre engine on the 3s sedan and the hatchback. It shares a platform with the current generation Volvo S40 and the second generation Ford Focus.
However, the eighth generation Familia remains in production in Taiwan as the Mazda Genki (sold as hatch and sedan and with little or no styling differences to the original 1998 production model). It is also badged as the Ford Activa, which, unlike the Ford Laser, has no styling changes from the 323, except for the badges. In Southeast Asia, a version of the last Laser is still assembled in Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines as the Ford Lynx.
This generation is also still in production in some South American countries (Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela), badged as the Mazda Allegro. Each Allegro keep in the styling of the last generation 323/Protegé/Astina/Familia. In Colombia, production of the Mazda 323 continued until 2003, built by its local subsidiary, the Compañía Colombiana Automotriz.
Chinese company FAW Haima Automobile Co., Ltd. produces a restyled version of the Familia/323 called Haima Family. It is equipped with a 1.6 L gasoline engine mated with either a 5-speed manual gearbox or 4-speed automatic gearbox.
- Engines (includes all models from 1998 to 2003)
- 1.3 L B3-ME SOHC I4
- 1.5 L ZL-DE DOHC I4
- 1.5 L ZL-VE S-VT I4
- 1.6 L ZM-DE DOHC I4
- 1.8 L FP-DE DOHC I4
- 2.0 L FS, 130 hp (97 kW; 132 PS) / 135 ft·lb (183 N·m)
- 2.0 L FS-ZE (2001 Sport 20)
- 2.0 L RF Diesel
- ↑ "History of Familia: Development Story, p. 1". Mazda Motor Co. http://www.mazda.co.jp/philosophy/history/familia/story/index.html. Retrieved 2010-11-01.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2
Tanegawa, Takeshi (長谷川) (June 2007). "Mazda Familia Model SSA" (in Japanese). Letter from Toyota Museum (トヨタ博物館だより) (Toyota Motor Corporation) (71): 5–7. http://www.toyota.co.jp/Museum/data/magazine71/magazine71_5.pdf. Retrieved 2011-07-16.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 "History of Familia: Development Story, p. 2". Mazda Motor Co. http://www.mazda.co.jp/philosophy/history/familia/story/p2.html. Retrieved 2010-10-04.
- ↑ "History of Familia: Development Story, p. 3". Mazda Motor Co. http://www.mazda.co.jp/philosophy/history/familia/story/p3.html. Retrieved 2010-10-05.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 Gazoo.com. "Great Car Pavilion: '64 Mazda Familia Wagon" (in Japanese). Toyota Motor Corporation. http://gazoo.com/meishakan/meisha/shousai.asp?R_ID=8573. Retrieved 2011-06-16.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 (in Japanese) 絶版車カタログ 国産車編 Part1 1950~1969 (Eichi Mook) [Japanese Vintage Car Guide: Car Catalog part 1, 1950–1969]. Eichi Publishing (英知出版). 1996. p. 63. ISBN 4-7542-5055-9.
Ishikawa, Makiteru (石川県禧照) (October 1993). Tsuji, Kohju (辻 好樹). ed. "トップセラーを誇ったタフボーイ [Tough boy boasting top sales]" (in Japanese). Nostalgic Hero (Tokyo: Geibunsha Publishing) 39 (10): 17–20. 07311-10.
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 (in Italian) Quattroruote Speciale: Tutte le Auto del Mondo 1967. Milano: Editoriale Domus. February 1967. p. 846.
- ↑ Sales brochure for Mazda Familia Rotary Coupe at my.reset.jp Retrieved on 26 July 2011
- ↑ Mazda Familia Pickup at japanesenostalgiccar.com Retrieved on 26 July 2011
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 11.2 Mazda Familia Rotary, 1968–1973 at www.carsinpictures.com Retrieved on 26 July 2011
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 ファミリア1300トラック (Catalog) [Familia 1300 Truck], Toyo Kogyo Co, June 1977, 7706T
- ↑ Howard, Geoffrey; Robson, Graham (10 October 1968). "55th Paris Salon". Autocar 129 (3791): 90–97.
- ↑ Development of Low-Emission Rotary Engines Retrieved from www.mazda.com on 27 July 2011
- ↑ "Kia Models". Edmunds.com. http://www.edmunds.com/kia/. Retrieved 2011-08-15.
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 16.2 Ho-Jeong, Lee (2009-10-05). "Blast From the Past #7: Aiming for broader market, Kia scored big with four-wheeled Brisa". Korea JoongAng Daily. http://joongangdaily.joins.com/article/view.asp?aid=2910850. Retrieved 2011-08-15.
- ↑ "Graduate Information Brochure". Kia Motors (UK). 2010. p. 5. http://www.kia.co.uk/About-Kia/Careers/2010-graduate-scheme/~/media/Graduate%20Scheme/pdf/Graduate-Information-Brochure.ashx.
- ↑ So, Rachel K. (2008-09-24). "Samsung Transportation Museum". Rachel's Random Ramblings. http://rachelkso.blogspot.com/2008/09/samsung-transportation-museum.html. Retrieved 2011-07-16.
- ↑ 19.0 19.1 Kia UK Graduate Information Brochure, p. 4
- ↑ Stern, Joseph J.; Kim, Ji-hong; Perkins, Dwight H.; Yoo, Jung-ho (1995). Industrialization and the State: The Korean Heavy and Chemical Industry Drive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Institute for International Development. p. 160. ISBN 0-674-45225-9.
- ↑ Costa, André & Georges-Michel Fraichard, ed. (September 1979). (in french)Salon 1979: Toutes les Voitures du Monde (Paris: l'Auto Journal) (14 & 15): 180.
- ↑ 22.0 22.1 Car Graphic: Car Archives Vol. 5, '70s Japanese Cars. Tokyo: Nigensha. 2007. p. 93. ISBN 978-4-544-09175-5.
- ↑ 23.0 23.1 23.2 Büschi, Hans-Ulrich, ed. (March 10, 1983) (in German/French). Automobil Revue '83. 78. Berne, Switzerland: Hallwag, AG. p. 360. ISBN 3-444-06065-3.
- ↑ "Mazda launches new locally-produced passenger car for Indonesian market. (Mazda MR90) (product announcement)". HighBeam Research: Online Press Releases. PR Newswire Association. December 4, 1990. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-9649533.html.
- ↑ Automobil Revue 1983, p. 359
- ↑ Freund, Klaus, ed. (August 1981) (in German). Auto Katalog 1982. 25. Stuttgart: Vereinigte Motor-Verlage GmbH & Co. KG. p. 232.
- ↑ 27.0 27.1 (in Japanese) Car Graphic: Car Archives Vol. 11, '80s Japanese Cars. Tokyo: Nigensha. 2007. p. 174. ISBN 978-4-544-91018-6.
- ↑ "ファミリア∞" (in Japanese). Geocities.jp. http://www.geocities.jp/yone1216jp/bg.htm. Retrieved 2010-10-05.
- ↑ "323/Protege Factory Service Manuals and Familia Brochures". Ferdster.com. http://www.ferdster.com/FSM_PDFS/fsm_pdfs.html. Retrieved 2010-10-05.
- ↑ Sanu, Munehiro (佐野弘宗). "試乗レポート: 新型ADで、ライトバン界の政権奪取を狙え！ [Test drive report: The new AD, aiming at a van world takeover!]" (in Japanese). Carview. http://www.carview.co.jp/road_impression/2007/nissan_ad/. Retrieved 2010-10-05.
- ↑ "Facilities | Ford Motor Company Newsroom". Media.ford.com. http://media.ford.com/plant_display.cfm?plant_id=49. Retrieved 2010-10-05.
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