Toyota Mark II

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This article incorporates information from the equivalent article on the Japanese Wikipedia.
Toyota Mark II
2002 Toyota Mark II
2002 Toyota Mark II
Manufacturer Toyota
Production 1968–2004
Predecessor Toyota Corona
Successor Toyota Mark X (Japan)
Toyota Camry (internationally)
Class Mid-size
Related Toyota Cressida
Toyota Chaser
Toyota Cresta
Toyota Verossa

The Toyota Mark II is a model name used by Toyota for several decades.

The first series, called the Toyota Corona Mark II was an all new vehicle at its introduction in 1968, that sought to offer a car that was just under Japanese government regulations concerning maximum vehicle dimensions and engine displacement. Using the established platform of the Toyota Corona sedan but slightly larger and wider, it was offered as a competitor to the newly introduced Nissan Laurel in Japan, and the Nissan Bluebird / Datsun 510 internationally that appeared August 1967, and two years after the Mazda Luce in 1966. Toyota was known at the time as a small, economy car manufacturer and the Mark II allowed Toyota to establish itself as a more mainstream, international automaker. The Mark II introduced the world to a comfortable front engine, rear drive vehicle that was larger than older Toyotas while maintaining an affordable price and better fuel economy than vehicles with larger straight 6 and V8 engines.

The Mark II began to become popular with drivers around the world, Toyota introduced variations of the Mark II with two different model names, both sedans but with different styling and marketing approaches. The sportier Toyota Chaser appeared in 1977, and later in 1980, the high luxury content Toyota Cresta appeared. As other Japanese and international automakers continued to offer vehicles in this size class, the Mark II's popularity peaked in the 1980s. The Mark II was available with engines ranging from a 1.8-liter straight-4 cylinder to a turbocharged 2.5-liter that pushed the 280 horsepower (209 kW) self-imposed limit of the Japanese auto industry.

Contents

Generation 1 (1968–1972) T60/T70 series

First Generation
1st generation
1st gen wagon
Production 1968 -1972
Body style 4-door sedan
4-door station wagon
2-door coupé
Length 4,295 mm (169.1 in)
Width 1,610 mm (63 in)
Height 1,405 mm (55.3 in)

The Corona Mark II, first offered for sale in Japan September 1968 at Toyopet Store dealerships, was intended as an intermediate model between the large luxury sedan the Crown, sold at Toyota Store dealerships, and the smaller Corona, also available at Toyopet Store . It was a slightly larger vehicle than a Corona with a higher level of equipment offered at the time, sharing some of the same features of the larger Crown, but taking the top position at Toyopet Store locations. The four-door sedan was designated as the T60 and the 2-door coupé the T70. In 1970 there were minor cosmetic changes in the front grille. The 1600cc 7R series engine was replaced by the 1700cc 6R series engine. A year later the 1500cc 2R models were replace by the 1600cc 12R engines. Its competitor was primarily the Nissan Laurel in Japan, released earlier that year in April.

US exported version for the same model year, often include the more powerful R series motors compared to other regions. While Japan and other markets often had 1.5L 2R (1500cc), 1.6L 7R/12R (1600cc) to 1.7L 6R (1700cc) models as well. Engines were shared with the Corona, using the 2R, and the 12R engine. Transmissions offered were an automatic transmission with 3 speeds for export and 2 speeds in Japan, or a choice of either a 4-speed or 3-speed manual transmission.

RT62 sedans and RT72 coupé features the 1.8L 8R (1900cc) 4-cylinder engine, unique to the Mark II. The RT63 sedan, RT73 coupé, RT78/RT79 station wagons feature 2L 18R (2000cc) 4-cylinder engine, also unique to the Mark II. The suspension setup used double wishbone with coil springs at the front and leaf springs at the back with a front-engine rear-drive powertrain format.

The Corona Mark II was longer, at 4,295 mm (169.1 in) over the Corona's length of 162.4 in (4,125 mm) for the sedan, and the coupe, with a width of 1,610 mm (63 in) in comparison to 61 in (1,549 mm) for the sedan and coupe. The height of the Mark II is lower at1,405 mm (55.3 in) over 55.9 in (1,420 mm) for the sedan, but higher at 54.1 in (1,374 mm) for the coupe.

For North America, the Mark II was available with bucket seats for the front passengers, a center console with a floor-mounted manual transmission, electric rear window defroster, and a full size spare tire installed externally and underneath the cargo area on the wagon with rear seats that folded down to a fully carpeted rear cargo area. The Mark II wagon was the largest wagon Toyota offered in North America, next to the Corona and Corolla wagons; the Crown wagon was not sold in North America.


Generation 2 (1972–1976) X10/X20 series

Second Generation
2nd generation sedan
2nd generation coupé
Production 1972-1976
Body style 4-door sedan
4-door station wagon
2-door coupé
Wheelbase 2,645 mm (104.1 in) sedan
2,585 mm (101.8 in) wagon
Length 4,325 mm (170.3 in)
4,399 mm (173.2 in) wagon
Width 1,625 mm (64.0 in)
Height 1,380 mm (54 in) sedan
1,389 mm (54.7 in) wagon
Curb weight 1,080 kg (2,400 lb) sedan

The second generation Corona Mark II was based on a new X series platform abandoning the compact Corona T series chassis. X20's are referring to the 2-door sedans, while the X10's are the sedans and wagons. The inline six-cylinder "M" series engine was borrowed from the S60 series Crown, in order to compete better with the Nissan Bluebird / Datsun 610 in North America, and the Nissan Laurel in Japan. The styling used on the second generation was dramatically different from the first.

The originally available engine choices include:

  • I4 1,700 cc 6R
  • I4 2,000 cc 18R
  • I4 2,000 cc 18R-G DOHC
  • I6 2,000 cc M
  • I6 2,300 cc 2M
  • I6 2,600 cc 4M

In 1973, there were minor changes and updates. The basic trim package wagon was offered with a five-speed manual transmission. Electronic fuel injection was introduced on the two-liter four-cylinder (18R) engine to increase power and lower fuel emissions. The four-cylinder 1,700 cc 6R engine was replaced by the 1,800 cc 16R.

File:Mark2GSS.jpg
Toyota Corona Mark II GSS

In America

File:Corona Mark II Wagon rear.jpg
Toyota Corona Mark II Wagon

The Crown line of cars was no longer marketed in North America due to poor sales. This left a gap in Toyota's North American line up, offering only smaller compact cars. The second generation Corona Mark II fortunately increased in size. The Corona Mark II would be one of the few sensible options for families transitioning from larger American Detroit cars in the midst of the oil crisis. In 1974 it was marketed in the US as a fully loaded car with few added options. Standard features included a six-cylinder SOHC engine, four-speed manual transmission, front disc brakes, heater defroster, and bucket seats. Some available options were 8-track audio, power steering, air conditioning, and a three-speed automatic transmission.

Generation 3 (1976–1980) X30/X40 series

Third Generation
Toyota Corona Mark II series X30
Production 1976 -1980
Body style 4-door sedan
4-door station wagon
2-door coupé
Wheelbase 2,645 mm (104.1 in)
Length 4,615 mm (181.7 in)
Width 1,680 mm (66 in)
Height 1,455 mm (57.3 in)
Curb weight 1,215 kg (2,680 lb)
Related Toyota Chaser
Toyota Cressida

The third generation was introduced with a more upscale, European type design. The lines are a combination of the previous generations American styling with a British looking front end. In 1978, this model generation was the last cars that feature the Toyopet name. The Grande trim was added to models with six-cylinder engines. This generation continued to offer Japanese buyers an alternative to the Nissan Laurel sedan, and the new Nissan Bluebird based Nissan Maxima in North America, with the new Chaser as an alternative to the Nissan Skyline in Japan. The Mark II was split into two other sedans so that they could sell different versions of the Mark II at multiple dealerships Toyota had established in the 1980s.

In 1998, Toyota released a car called Progrès. The Progrès front end looks sort of like an updated version of the X30/X40 series sedan. For instance, both of them feature a combination of round and squared lighting. The grille and bonnet also has similar shapes, size, and lines.

Chaser

The Toyota Chaser was released in 1977 as a competitor to the Nissan Skyline sedan. The Chaser was originally just a rebadged Mark II, although later generations received more differentiated styling. The idea of the Chaser was to offer a sportier version of the Mark II, often with more powerful engines and different suspension setups. At a glance they are virtually identical, with slightly differing equipment.

Cressida

The Corona Mark II was renamed the Toyota Cressida for export markets. It was Toyota's largest sedan and wagon range offered in both North America and Australia. In other markets, the larger Crown remained available.


Generation 4 (1980–1984) X60 series

Fourth Generation
1983 Mark II Grande sedan
Production 1980-1984
Body style 4-door sedan/hardtop
4-door station wagon
Transmission 4/5-speed manual
3/4-speed automatic
Wheelbase 2,645 mm (104.1 in)
Length 4,640 mm (183 in)
Width 1,690 mm (67 in)
Height 1,425 mm (56.1 in)
Curb weight 1,225 kg (2,700 lb)
Related Toyota Cresta
Toyota Chaser
Toyota Cressida

The fourth generation Corona Mark II was launched in 1980. It was still badged as the Corona Mark II but many of the advertisement at the time simply refer to it as the Mark II. Power by either the 1G-EU, Turbo charged M-TEU, 5M-EU and fuel-injected version of the 18R-G was available in the GT. A diesel version was also available. In 1982 the twin-cam 1G-GEU engine was added. In 1983 the automatic transmission was changed to an electronic controlled four-speed. The two-door coupé version was not replaced as the fourth generation was only available with four doors, either as a sedan, hardtop, or station wagon (mainly marketed as a commercial vehicle in Japan).

File:X60MarkIIgrande.jpg
Toyota Mark II Grande Hardtop

This Mark II generation was considered successful spawning commercial, taxi and drivers training vehicles. This made the Mark II familiar to everyone in Japan, as just about everyone who was born in a certain era had their initial experience learning to drive or riding in the taxis based on them. The Mark II was a fairly common favorite alongside the slightly smaller Corona as a taxi.

Cresta

The Toyota Cresta was launched in 1980. Based on the same chassis as the Mark II, they are very similar. The goal of the Cresta was Toyota's first intermediate 4-door hardtop luxury sedan to compete with the Nissan Laurel hardtop, pitting the Mark II against the Nissan Laurel sedan. Often available with two-tone paint and more interior convenience options. The Cresta ended up being similar to the export market Cressida, with the Cresta remaining a four-door hardtop.

Generation 5 (1984–1988) X70 series

Fifth Generation
Mark II Grande
Production 1984-1988
Body style 4-door sedan
4-door station wagon
Engine 1.8L 4-cylinder
2.0L 4-cylinder
2.0L 6-cylinder
2.4L 4-cylinder diesel
Transmission 4-speed automatic
3-speed automatic
4-speed manual
5-speed manual
Wheelbase 2,660 mm (105 in)
Length 4,650 mm (183 in)
Width 1,690 mm (67 in)
Height 1,415 mm (55.7 in)
Curb weight 1,280 kg (2,800 lb)
Related Toyota Cresta
Toyota Chaser
Toyota Cressida

The 1984 model dropped the Corona name in Japan and simply called it the Mark II. This generation Mark II had a lot of rivals including the Nissan Leopard, as well as the traditional competitor Nissan Laurel sedan. The Mark II continued to remain very viable for fleet sales, government agencies and taxi services.

There are two different variation of the Mark II; the Hardtop and the Standard. Visually they are different on the exterior while the interior remains untouched.

Exterior changes on the Hardtop version includes a slanted nose which requires a new grille, a thinner headlamp assembly that match the slanted nose, frameless door windows, thinner tail lamp, front fenders and bumper. Body panel is stamped different from the standard version.

The Standard version is exactly like the MX-73 Toyota Cressida. It does not have the aggressive slanted front end, conservative body panels and framed windows.

Station wagon/Van/Estate (1984–1997)

The X70 station wagon was produced from 1984 to 1997. That's 13 years with only a few minor revisions over the years. In most markets, sales of this wagon was stopped when the next model of the sedan was introduced but they continued to be sold in Japan for use as delivery vehicles. It was finally superseded by the front-wheel-drive Mark II Qualis that was based on the Camry Gracia.

Mark II X70 van Mark II X70 van

Generation 6 (1988–1992) X80 series

Sixth Generation
1988 Mark II Grande
Production 1988-1992
Body style 4-door sedan
Wheelbase 2,730 mm (107 in)
Length 4,690 mm (185 in)
Width 1,695 mm (66.7 in)
Height 1,375 mm (54.1 in)
Curb weight 1,480 kg (3,300 lb)
Related Toyota Cresta
Toyota Chaser
Toyota Cressida

First released in August 1988, the height of the car is lower than the previous generation. It's about the same height as the second generation Mark II. The Australian Cressida was withdrawn from sale in early 1993 on the X80 series so as not to compete against the new widebody Camry-Vienta, and Lexus ES300 and LS400. The North American Cressida was replaced by the first designed-for-America Toyota Avalon was introduced as Toyota's new North American large sedan.

The Grande G series in 1989 uses the 3.0L 7M-GE engine. Featuring Traction Control and ABS.

In 1990, 1JZ-GE and 1JZ-GTE (280ps) is first introduced on this generation replacing the 1G-GZE. The GT did not have MT transmission available, and were strictly AT.

After 1992, the X80 series continued to be produced for taxi fleet vehicles until 1995, when the Crown Comfort assumed taxi duties.

Generation 7 (1992–1996) X90 series

Seventh Generation
1994 Mark II
1994 Mark II Grande
Production 1992-1996
Body style 4-door sedan
Layout Front engine, RWD/AWD
Engine 2.4 2L-TE turbo-diesel I4
1.8L 4S-FE petrol I4
2.0L 1G-FE petrol I6
2.5L 1JZ-GE petrol I6
3.0L 2JZ-GE petrol I6
2.5L 1JZ-GTE twin-turbo petrol I6
Wheelbase 2,730 mm (107 in)
Length 4,750 mm (187 in)
Width 1,750 mm (69 in)
Height 1,390 mm (55 in)
Curb weight 1,390 kg (3,100 lb)
Related Toyota Cresta
Toyota Chaser

First released in October 1992, the Mark II was revised during the period. It received a new front bumper (including grill), rear bumpers and tail lights and some weight mainly do to regulations. Under Japanese exterior dimension regulations, this series was no longer regarded as a "compact car". Buyers who wanted a sedan that remained under the guidelines was now served by the 1990 SV30 series Toyota Camry. Toyota added a new sedan, called the Toyota Scepter with the major difference being a front-wheel-drive powertrain.

The X90's were available in six different trim levels. All trims came standard with fully automatic air conditioning and faux wood interior paneling. The base GL was available in either standard or automatic with a choice of a diesel or petrol 4-cylinder engine. The slightly more up-market Groire had the same engine and transmission options as the GL with more standard features over its inferior.

The next four trim levels featured only petrol straight sixes for engines and either rear- or all-wheel drive. The Grande was available with either a 2.0L 1G-FE or 2.5L 1JZ-GE and either a four-speed automatic or 5-speed manual for 1G-equipped Mark II Grandes. The Grande was otherwise identical to the Groire in terms of options and equipment. The Grande G was available with either the aforementioned 1JZ or a 3.0L 2JZ-GE mated to an automatic transmission and came with ABS and traction control standard.

The Tourer S came with a 1JZ-GE engine, 4-speed automatic and several options either standard (such as ABS and control) or not present (a factory limited-slip differential) in either the Grande or Grande G.

Lastly, the Tourer V had a reinforced body, sport suspension, and a twin-turbo 280 horsepower (210 kW) 2.5-liter 1JZ-GTE inline 6 engine. It also came from the factory with, traction control, ABS, an optional torsen LSD and optional 5-speed manual transmission. The Mark II Tourer V was a popular choice among tuners, enthusiasts, and drifters.

The hardtop approach was used on various segments of core Toyota sedans by offering a more upscale hardtop version. These cars were offered for consumers who wanted the luxurious approach offered by the Toyota Crown hardtop and sedan, as well as the Mark II (4-door hardtop), Cresta (4-door sedan) and Chaser (4-door hardtop and performance enhancements), and the next segment down on the Corona and Carina, called the Toyota Corona EXiV and the Toyota Carina ED, with the Toyota Corolla Ceres and the Toyota Sprinter Marino at the lowest segment, which were all offered at reduced prices and tax liability based on the vehicles size. The various versions were sold at different Toyota dealerships dedicated to particular models.


Generation 8 (1996–2000) X100 series

Eighth Generation
1998 Mark II
1999 Mark II
Production 1996-2000
Body style 4-door sedan
4-door station wagon
Layout Front engine, RWD/AWD
Engine 2.4L 2L-TE turbo-diesel I4
2.0L 1G-FE petrol I6
2.5L 1JZ-GE petrol I6
2.5L 1JZ-GTE turbocharged petrol I6
3.0L 2JZ-GE petrol I6
Wheelbase 2,730 mm (107 in)
Length 4,760 mm (187 in)
Width 1,755 mm (69.1 in)
Height 1,400 mm (55 in)
Curb weight 1,480 kg (3,300 lb)
Related Toyota Cresta
Toyota Chaser

Like its predecessor, the X100 series Toyota Mark II was available in multiple trim levels. New for this production run was the introduction of all-wheel drive to Grande and Grande G as well as the use of Toyota's new VVTi system on its engines. Also new this year was the standardization of ABS and a new electronic traction control system. The Groire trim level was also dropped for this production run.

The base GL came with only the 2.4L 2L-TE turbo-diesel I4 mated to a 4-speed automatic. It came with basic features like power windows and door locks and automatic air-conditioning, but sportier options were only available on higher-level trims. However, traction control and ABS were available as options.

The Grande trim levels had a plethora of options and features available not limited to but including tilt-steering, standard ABS, traction control and AWD. The base Grande was powered by either the 2.0L 1G-FE inline 6 mated to a 5-speed manual transmission or 4-speed automatic, the 2.4L 2L-TE mated to a 4-speed auto from the GL or the 2.5L 1JZ-GE turning a 4-speed automatic as well. New for 1996 was the Grande Four: a four-wheel-drive variant of the Grande, it was powered by the 1JZ-GE and mated to a 4-speed automatic transmission sending power to all wheels via a center differential. The Grande G's were available with either a 1JZ- or 2JZ-GE and a 4-speed automatic. The "G package" included leather anointments for the steering wheel and seats as well as power front seats. A Grande G Four was also offered with the 1JZ engine, 4-speed auto transmission and all-wheel drive.

The Tourer trim level carried on from the X90 series in both Tourer S and Tourer V. The Tourer S was powered by a naturally aspirated 1JZ-GE and mated to a 4-speed automatic. The Tourer V received some noticeable tweaks from its X90 series counterpart: along with the implementation of ETCS and VVTi, the engine now received forced induction through one large turbocharger as opposed to two smaller ones in a parallel configuration. According to Toyota, this smoothed out the torque curve allowing the engine to deliver more torque at a lower RPM and with VVTi, improved the car's fuel economy.


Generation 9 (2000–2004) X110 series

Ninth Generation
2000 Mark II Grande
Manufacturer Kanto Auto Works[1]
Production 2000-2004
Assembly Iwate, Japan
Body style 4-door sedan
4-door station wagon
Layout Front engine, RWD/AWD
Engine 2.0L 1G-FE petrol I6
2.5L 1JZ-GE petrol I6
2.5L 1JZ-FSE direct inject petrol I6
2.5L 1JZ-GTE turbocharged petrol I6
Wheelbase 2,780 mm (109 in)
Length 4,735 mm (186.4 in)
Width 1,760 mm (69 in)
Height 1,460 mm (57 in)
Curb weight 1,530 kg (3,400 lb)
Related Toyota Verossa

This last generation of Mark II hosted several new technologies for Toyota. The new 2.5L with the designation of 1JZ-FSE is the first application of Direct Injection for mass production on a Toyota passenger vehicle. This version of the JZ series engine features a redesign head to optimize fuel economy and performance. Along with the 1JZ-FSE, the 1G-FE, 1JZ-GE and 1JZ-GTE are available and all with VVT-i technology. This generation of Mark II also host a new feature call Navi AI-shift, which uses GPS signals and shifts the automatic transmission into the appropriate gear.

The X110 series discontinued the hardtop version in favor of the standard version.

During this time, Toyota has discontinued the Chaser and Cresta nameplate and created the Verossa. Toyota has also eliminated the Tourer S and Tourer V and instead called their sportier version 2.5 Grande iR-S and 2.5 Grande iR-V, respectively. iR meaning Intelligent Rapidly. Other models include the 2.0 Grande, 2.5 Grande, 2.5 Grande G, 2.5 Grande G-tb, 2.5 Grande G Four, 2.0 Grande Four and the 2.0 Grande Four "S package" all of which is their luxury lineup.

Minor changes was made in 2002. New headlight, grill and a redesign bumper freshen up the front end while a new taillight design and new chrome trim for the trunk handle finish up the rear end. The introduction of the 2.0L iR grade was added along side the iR-S and iR-V. The G-tb model was discontinued in favor for the 2.0L iR model. Another model introduced by Toyota for the Mark II is their special edition, Regalia, which marks the 35th Anniversary of the Mark II nameplate.


Mark II Blit (2002–2007)

The rear-wheel-drive Mark II Blit was introduced in 2002, replacing the front-wheel-drive Mark II Qualis. The Mark II Blit features a different front end and a slightly more sporty interior package. There are 5 trims, the 2.5 iR-V, the 2.5 iR-S, the 2.0 iR, the 2.5 iR-S Four and the 2.0 iR Four.

By the time the Mark X was launched in 2004, the Mark II Blit continued on with the iR and iR-S model. The iR-V model was discontinued because of strict emission standards.


References

External links

Template:Commons category

de:Toyota Corona Mark II

fr:Toyota Mark II id:Toyota Mark II ja:トヨタ・マークII pl:Toyota Mark II ru:Toyota Mark II

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