Toyota Prius

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Toyota Prius
2010 Toyota Prius (XW30; Europe)
Manufacturer Toyota
Production 1997–present
Class Compact car (1997–2003)
Mid-size car (2003–present)
Layout Front-engine, front-wheel drive

The Toyota Prius (11px /ˈprəs/; Toyota's declared plural: Prii,[1] /ˈpr/) is a full hybrid electric mid-size hatchback, formerly a compact sedan developed and manufactured by the Toyota Motor Corporation. The EPA and California Air Resources Board (CARB) rate the Prius as among the cleanest vehicles sold in the United States based on smog-forming emissions.[2]

The Prius first went on sale in Japan in 1997, making it the first mass-produced hybrid vehicle. It was subsequently introduced worldwide in 2001. The Prius is sold in more than 70 countries and regions, with its largest markets being those of Japan and North America.[3] In May 2008, global cumulative Prius sales reached the milestone 1 million vehicle mark,[4] and in March 2011, the Prius reached worldwide cumulative sales of 3 million units.[5] The U.S. is the largest market, with 1 million Priuses sold by early April 2011,[6] and Japan reached the 1 million mark in August 2011.[7] Since its launch in 2009, the third-generation model has sold more than 1 million units worldwide by September 2011.[8]

Contents

Etymology and terminology

Prius is a Latin word meaning "before". According to Toyota, the name was chosen because the Prius was launched before environmental awareness became a mainstream social issue.[9]

In February 2011, Toyota asked the public to decide on what the most proper plural form of Prius should be, with choices including Prien, Prii, Prium, Prius, or Priuses.[10][11] The company says "it will use the most popular choice in its advertising"[12] and on February 20 announced that "Prii" was the most popular choice, and the new official plural designation.[1] In Latin prius is the neuter singular of the comparative form (prior, prior, prius) of an adjective with only comparative and superlative (the superlative being primus, prima, primum), consequently, like all 3rd declension words, the plural in Latin was priora (cf. Latin declension).

Beginning in September 2011, Toyota USA began using the following names to differentiate the original Prius from some newer members of the Prius family: the standard Prius became the Prius Liftback, the Prius v (known as the Prius α in Japan, and Prius + in Europe), the Prius Plug-in Hybrid, and the Prius c. The last two are scheduled to be available in the market in 2012.[13][14]

First generation (XW10; 1997–2003)

Toyota Prius (XW10)
2001-2003 Toyota Prius (US)
Production 1997–2001 (NHW10)
2001–2003 (NHW11)
Assembly Takaoka, later Toyota City (Motomachi), Japan[15]
Body style 4-door sedan

In 1995, Toyota debuted a hybrid concept car at the Tokyo Motor Show, with testing following a year later.[16] The first Prius, model NHW10, went on sale on December 10, 1997.[17][18] It was available only in Japan, though it has been imported privately to at least the United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand.[19] The first generation Prius, at its launch, became the world's first mass-produced gasoline-electric hybrid car. The NHW10 Prius styling originated from California designers, who were selected over competing designs from other Toyota design studios.[18]

In the United States, the NHW11 was the first Prius to be sold. The Prius was marketed between the smaller Corolla and the larger Camry. The published retail price of the car was US$19,995.[20] The NHW11 Prius became more powerful partly to satisfy the higher speeds and longer distances that Americans drive.[21] Air conditioning and electric power steering were standard equipment.[22] The vehicle was the second mass-produced hybrid on the American market, after the two-seat Honda Insight.[23] While the larger Prius could seat five, its battery pack restricted cargo space.

The California Air Resources Board (CARB) classified the car with an air pollution score of 3 out of 10 as an Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV).[24] Prius owners were eligible for up to a US$2,000 federal tax deduction from their gross income.[23] In contrast with the NW10, Toyota executives stated that the company broke even financially on sales of the NHW11 Prius.[23]

European sales began in September 2000.[25] The official launch of the Prius in Australia occurred at the October 2001 Sydney Motor Show,[26] although sales were slow until the NHW20 model arrived.

Second generation (XW20; 2003–2009)

Toyota Prius (XW20)
Toyota Prius (US)
Production 2003–2009 (Japan)
2004–present (China)
Assembly Tsutsumi, Japan (Toyota City)
Kariya, Aichi, Japan (Fujimatsu)
Changchun, Jilin, China

In 2004 the Prius was completely redesigned as a mid-size liftback, sized between the Corolla and the Camry, with redistributed mechanical and interior space significantly increasing rear-seat legroom and luggage room. The 2004 Prius is even more environmentally friendly than the 2001 model (according to the EPA), and is 6 inches (150 mm) longer than the previous version.[27] Its more aerodynamic Kammback body balances length and wind resistance, resulting in Cd=0.26.[28] The development effort, led by chief engineer Shigeyuki Hori, led to 530 patents for the vehicle.[29]

The Prius uses an all-electric A/C compressor for cooling, an industry first.[30] Combined with a smaller and lighter NiMH battery, the XW20 is more powerful and more efficient than the XW10.[31] In the U.S., the battery pack of 2004 and later models is warranted for 150,000 miles (240,000 km) or 10 years in states that have adopted the stricter California emissions control standards, and 100,000 miles (160,000 km) or 8 years elsewhere.[32][33] The warranty for hybrid components is 100,000 miles (160,000 km) or 8 years.[34]

It is classified as a SULEV (Super Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle) and is certified by California Air Resources Board as an "Advanced Technology Partial Zero Emission Vehicle" (AT-PZEV).[35]

From 2005 to 2009, the second generation Prius had been built by FAW-Toyota in the city of Changchun for the Chinese market.[36] It was reported that a total of 2,152 Priuses were sold in 2006 and 414 in 2007. The relatively low sales was blamed on high price, about US$15,000 higher than the equivalent in Japan or the U.S., caused by high duties on imported parts.[37] In early March 2008, Toyota cut the price of Prius by up to eight percent or US$3,000 to RMB 259,800 (US$36,500). It was thought that the sales dropped as a result of both a lack of acceptance and increased competition. The Honda Civic Hybrid was exported to China from 2007.[38]

Safety

Euro NCAP test results for a RHD, 5-door hatchback variant on a 2004 registration:

Test[39] Score Points
Overall: N/A N/A
Adult occupant: 5/5 stars11px11px11px11px 34
Child occupant: 4/5 stars11px11px11px11px 43
Pedestrian: 2/4 stars11px11px11px 13
Safety assist: N/A N/A

Third generation (XW30; 2009–present)

Toyota Prius (XW30)
Toyota Prius (US)
Production March 2009–present
Model years 2010–present
Assembly Tsutsumi, Japan (Toyota City)[40]
Chachoengsao, Thailand (December 2010-present)
Changchun, Jilin, China
Class Mid-size car
Body style 5-door liftback

Toyota debuted the new Prius (2010 US model year) at the January 2009 North American International Auto Show,[41] and sales began in Japan on May 18, 2009.[42] Toyota cut the price of the Prius from ¥2.331 million to ¥2.05 million to better compete with the Honda Insight,[43] leading some to wonder whether increased sales of the Prius might come at the expense of sales of other vehicles with higher margins. Competition from lower priced hybrids, such as the Honda Insight, also made it difficult for Toyota to capitalize on the Prius's success.[44] Its new body design is more aerodynamic, with the coefficient of drag reduced to Cd=0.25. This figure is disputed by General Motors which found the value for the model with 17" wheels to be around 0.30 based on tests in GM, Ford, and Chrysler wind tunnels.[45] An underbody rear fin helps stabilize the vehicle at higher speeds

The estimated fuel-efficiency rating, using the U.S. EPA combined cycle, is 50 mpg-US (4.7 L/100 km; 60 mpg-imp).[46] The Prius was the most efficient car powered by liquid fuel available in the U.S. in 2009, based on the official rating.[47] Only the first-generation Honda Insight (2000–2006) equipped with a manual transmission attained a lower fuel consumption rate. The official UK fuel efficiency data for the Prius T3 is Urban 72.4 mpg-imp (3.90 L/100 km; 60.3 mpg-US), Extra Urban 76.4 mpg-imp (3.70 L/100 km; 63.6 mpg-US), Combined 72.4 mpg-imp (3.90 L/100 km; 60.3 mpg-US).[48]

The 1.8-liter gasoline engine (previously 1.5 liters) generates 98 hp, and with the added power of the electric motor generates a total of 134 hp (previously 110 hp). The larger engine displacement allows for increased torque, reducing engine speeds (RPM), which improves fuel economy at highway speeds. Thanks to its electric water pump, the Prius engine is the first consumer automotive production engine that requires no accessory belts, which also further improves its fuel economy.[49] The electric motors and other components of the hybrid powertrain are also smaller and more efficient than the industry average.[50] Toyota estimates the new inverter, motor and transaxle are 20 percent lighter. Disc brakes replace the previous rear drum brakes.

In constructing the Prius, Toyota used a new range of plant-derived ecological bioplastics, made out of cellulose derived from wood or grass instead of petroleum. The two principal crops used are kenaf and ramie. Kenaf is a member of the hibiscus family, a relative to cotton and okra; ramie, commonly known as China grass, is a member of the nettle family and one of the strongest natural fibres, with a density and absorbency comparable to flax. Toyota says this is a particularly timely breakthrough for plant-based eco-plastics because 2009 is the United Nations’ International Year of Natural Fibres, which spotlights kenaf and ramie among others.[51]

Safety

Euro NCAP test results for a RHD, 5-door hatchback variant on a 2009 registration:

Test[52] Score Points
Overall: 5/5 stars11px11px11px11px 102
Adult occupant: 88% 32
Child occupant: 82% 40
Pedestrian: 68% 24
Safety assist: 86% 6

Plug-in Hybrid

File:11-09-04-iaa-by-RalfR-095.jpg
Facelifted Prius third generation exhibited at the 2011 Frankfurt Motor Show

The Prius Plug-in Hybrid (ZVW35) is based on a third generation Toyota Prius (model ZVW30) with a 4.4-kWh lithium-ion battery that allows an all-electric range of 14.3 mi (23 km).[8] A global demonstration program involving 600 pre-production test cars began in late 2009 and is taking place in Japan, Europe, Canada, China, Australia, New Zealand and the United States.[53][54][55]

The production version was unveiled at the September 2011 Frankfurt Motor Show, and sales are scheduled to begin in Japan, the United States and Europe by early 2012.[8] Deliveries scheduled for retail sales in the U.S. in the second quarter of 2012 and will be initially offered in 14 states.[56] Toyota announced that initially it expects to sell 15,000 units a year in the U.S., and retail sales price in that country will start at US$32,000 plus a US$760 delivery fee and before any applicable government incentives.[57]

2011 facelift

In mid 2011 (for the 2012 model year), the third-generation Prius Liftback receives modest style and equipment changes. The exterior changes include updated headlamps, revised tail lamps, plus a distinctive front fascia and bumper. The Prius can be equipped with an updated infotainment system featuring the optional Toyota Entune suite of connectivity features. Other updates include a 6.1-inch touch-screen, AM/FM CD player unit, a USB port for iPod connectivity, auxiliary input jack, Bluetooth hands-free phone capability and streaming audio. The Prius also includes a solar panel on the roof of the car. For the U.S. market only the Prius Two, Three, Four and Five will be offered. The premium Prius Five model's Advanced Technology Package includes the Premium HDD Navigation System, plus the Head-up Display, Dynamic Radar Cruise Control, Pre-Collision System and Lane Keep Assist. The Pre-Collision System retracts the front seatbelts and applies the brakes in certain conditions when it determines that a crash is unavoidable. Lane Keep Assist can help the driver stay within the lane.[13] The U.S. 2012 model year includes Toyota's Vehicle Proximity Notification System (VPNS), which is designed to alert pedestrians, the blind, and others of the vehicle's presence due to significant noise reduction typical of a hybrid vehicle traveling at low speeds in all-electric mode.[58][59]

Prius family

File:Toyota Prius V Hybrid car family.jpg
The standard Prius with the Prius v, named Prius Alpha in Japan and Prius + in Europe.

At the January 2011 North American International Auto Show, Toyota revealed the 2012 model year Prius v, an extended hatchback wagon, which is derived from the third-generation Prius and features over 50 percent more interior cargo space than the original Prius design. Toyota also unveiled the Prius c concept, which is cheaper and smaller than the current Prius hatchback. The production version was unveiled at the 2011 Tokyo Motor Show as the Toyota Aqua, and was launched in Japan in December 2011.[60] The Aqua is scheduled to be released as the Prius c in Australia during the first quarter of 2012, and in the U.S. in the second quarter of 2012.[61][62]

File:Toyota Aqua 101.JPG
The Toyota Aqua was launched in Japan in December 2011.

In May 2011 Toyota introduced the Prius Alpha in Japan, which is available in a five-seat, two-row model and a seven-seat, three-row model, the latter’s third row enabled by a space-saving lithium-ion drive battery in the center console. The five-seat model uses a NiMH battery pack.[63][64] The Alpha is the basis for the five-seat Prius v launched in North America in October 2011 with a nickel-metal hydride battery pack similar to the 2010 model year Prius, and with two rows of seats to accommodate five passengers. The European and Japanese versions will be offered with a lithium-ion battery, with three rows of seats with accommodations for seven passengers.[65] The European version, named Prius +, is scheduled to be launched by mid 2012.[63]

Sales

The Prius is sold in more than 70 countries and regions, and has its largest markets in the United States, Japan, and Europe.[3] In May 2008, Toyota announced that its worldwide cumulative sales of the Prius had passed the 1 million mark;[66] worldwide cumulative sales surpassed 2 million units in September 2010.[3]

As of April 2011 the U.S. accounted for almost half of the Prius global sales, with one million Prii sold since 2000.[6] However, the Prius experienced two consecutive years of sales decreases from its peak in 2007 to 139,682 units in 2009,[67] and rebounded in 2010 to 140,928 units.[68] Sales in Japan reached 1 million Prii in August 2011.[7]

Cumulative Prius sales in Europe reach 100,000 in 2008 and 200,000 units by mid 2010, after 10 years on that market. The U.K. is one of the leading European markets for Prius, accounting more than 20 percent of all Prii sold in Europe.[69] Toyota Prius became Japan's best selling vehicle in 2009 for the first time since its debut in 1997 as its sales almost tripled to 208,876 in 2009.[70] In that year it overtook the Honda Fit, which was Japan's best-selling car in 2008 excluding Kei cars.

Rising oil prices caused by unrest in Libya and the Middle East led to increased sales of the Prius in the first quarter of 2011, but the 2011 Japan earthquake led to a production stoppage. Production restarted several days later, but problems are expected to continue due to shortages from parts suppliers.[71]

Annual sales worldwide and by region[3]
(in thousands)
Year World Japan North
America
U.S.[68] Europe Other
1997 0.3 0.3        
1998 17.7 17.7        
1999 15.2 15.2        
2000 19.0 12.5 5.8 5.6 0.7 0.01
2001 29.5 11.0 16.0 15.6 2.3 0.2
2002 28.1 6.7 20.3 20.1 0.8 0.2
2003 43.2 17.0 24.9 24.6 0.9 0.4
2004 125.7 59.8 55.9 54.0 8.1 1.9
2005 175.2 43.7 109.9 107.9 18.8 2.9
2006 185.6 48.6 109.0 107.0 22.8 5.3
2007 281.3 58.3 183.8 181.2 32.2 7.0
2008 285.7 73.1 163.3 158.6 41.5 7.7
2009 404.2 208.9 144.3 139.7 42.6 8.4
Jan-Sept
2010
401.3 254.2 105.9 103.3[72] 35.5 5.8
Total through
Sept 2010
2,011.8 826.9 939.1 917.5 206.1 39.7
2010 315.7[73] 140.9[68]
2011 252.5[74] 136.5[75] 26.4[76]
Cumulative
total through
Dec 2011
1,1140.9 1,091.6

Design and technology

File:Hibrid Toyota Prius 61 MIA 12 2008 with logo.jpg
The Toyota Prius Hybrid Synergy Drive is a series-parallel full hybrid, sometimes referred to as a combined hybrid.

The Prius is a power-split or series-parallel (full) hybrid, sometimes referred to as a combined hybrid, a vehicle that can be propelled by gasoline and/or electric power. Wind resistance is reduced by a drag coefficient of 0.25 (0.29 for 2000 model) with a Kammback design to reduce air resistance. Lower rolling-resistance tires are used to reduce road friction. An electric water pump eliminates serpentine belts.[77] In the U.S. and Canada, a vacuum flask is used to store hot coolant when the vehicle is powered off for reuse so as to reduce warm-up time. The Prius engine makes use of the Atkinson cycle.[78]

EV mode

When the vehicle is turned on with the "Power" button, it is ready to drive immediately with the electric motor, while electric pumps warm the engine with previously saved hot engine coolant[79] before the internal combustion engine is started. The delay between starting the car and starting the internal combustion engine is approximately seven seconds. A button labelled "EV" maintains Electric Vehicle mode after being powered on and under most low-load driving conditions. This permits driving with low noise and no fuel consumption, and is advertised as a quiet option for short journeys, for example in residential areas at night, in the Asia manual.Template:Citation needed The car automatically reverts to normal mode if the battery becomes exhausted. Prior to the 2010 model, the North American model did not have the "EV" button, although the "EV" mode is still supported internally by the Prius Hybrid Vehicle management computer.Template:Citation needed

Battery

File:Ni-MH Battery 01.JPG
Battery pack from the second generation Prius

A sealed 38-module nickel metal hydride (NiMH) battery pack providing 273.6 volts, 6.5 A·h capacity and weighing 53.3 kg (118 lb)[80] is supplied by Japan's Panasonic EV Energy Co. They are normally charged to 40–60% of maximum capacity to prolong battery life as well as provide a reserve for regenerative braking. Each battery pack uses 10–15 kg (22–33 lb) of lanthanum, and each Prius electric motor contains 1 kg (2 lb) of neodymium; production of the car is described as "the biggest user of rare earths of any object in the world."[81]

Battery life cycle

As the Prius reached ten years of being available in the U.S. market, in February 2011 Consumer Reports decided to look at the lifetime of the Prius battery and the cost to replace it. The magazine tested a 2002 Toyota Prius with over 200,000 miles on it, and compared the results to the nearly identical 2001 Prius with 2,000 miles tested by Consumer Reports 10 years before. The comparison showed little difference in performance when tested for fuel economy and acceleration. Overall fuel economy of the 2001 model was 40.6 miles per US gallon (5.79 L/100 km; 48.8 mpg-imp) while the 2002 Prius with high mileage delivered 40.4 miles per US gallon (5.82 L/100 km; 48.5 mpg-imp). The magazine concluded that the effectiveness of the battery has not degraded over the long run.[82] The cost of replacing the battery varies between US$2,200 and US$2,600 from a Toyota dealer, but low-use units from salvage yards are available for around US$500.[82] One piece of research indicates it may be worthwhile to rebuild batteries using good blades from defective used batteries.[83]

Environmental effects

Lifetime energy usage

In 2008 the British government and British media have requested that Toyota release detailed figures for the energy use and CO2 emissions resulting from the building and disposal of the Prius. Toyota has not supplied the requested data details to support statements that the lifetime energy usage of the Prius (including the increased environmental cost of manufacture and disposal of the nickel-metal hydride battery) is outweighed by lower lifetime fuel consumption.[84] Toyota states that lifetime CO2 saving is 43 percentTemplate:Fix. As of 2010, the UK Government Car Service runs over 100 Priuses, the largest part of its fleet and lists the Prius as having the lowest CO2 emissions among its fleet.[85]

CNW Marketing Research initially published a study[86] in which they estimated that the total lifetime energy cost of a 2005 Prius was greater than that of a Hummer. The study is widely cited, and its contents have also been widely challenged: see for example "Hummer versus Prius: 'Dust to Dust' Report Misleads the Media and Public with Bad Science".[87] The following year an update by CNW changed the total lifetime cost value, now showing the Prius as costing less than the Hummer and other large SUVs over its lifetime.

Electromagnetic field levels

File:Toyota Prius cutmodel.JPG
Prius cutaway model showing forward engine connected to rear high voltage battery

The Prius uses electric motors in the hybrid propulsion systems, powered by a high voltage battery in the rear of the car. There has been some public concern over whether the levels of electromagnetic field exposure within the cabin are higher than comparable cars, and what health effects those fields may present, popularized by a 2008 The New York Times article.[88] However, Toyota[88] and several independent studies[89][90] have indicated that aside from a brief spike when accelerating, the electromagnetic fields within the Prius are no different from those of a conventional car and do not exceed the ICNIRP[91] exposure guidelines.

Quietness

The Wall Street Journal reported in February 2007 on concerns that quiet cars like the Prius may pose a safety risk to those who rely on engine noise to sense the presence or location of moving vehicles.[92] Blind pedestrians are a primary concern, and the National Federation of the Blind advocates audio emitters on hybrid vehicles,[93] but increased risks may also affect sighted pedestrians or bicyclists who are accustomed to aural cues from vehicles. However there is also a lack of aural cues from vehicles that have a conventional internal combustion engine, where engine noise has been reduced by noise-absorbing materials in the engine bay and noise-canceling muffler systems. In July 2007, a spokesman for Toyota said the company is aware of the issue and is studying options.[94] In the USA both state[95] and federal legislation[96] have been proposed, and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration held a public hearing.[97] Different groups and companies are looking at solutions.[98][99] In 2010, Toyota released a device for the third-generation Prius meant to alert pedestrians of its proximity.[100]

Marketing and culture

CO2 advertising

In the UK, the Advertising Standards Authority, an independent body charged with policing the rules of the advertising industry, ruled that a television advert for the Toyota Prius should not be broadcast again in the same form, having breached rules concerning misleading advertising. The advertisement stated that the Prius "emits up to one tonne less CO2 per year", while on-screen text included "1 tonne of CO2 less than an equivalent family vehicle with a diesel engine. Average calculated on 20,000 km a year." Points of contention were the vehicles chosen for comparison, whether "'up to' one tonne less" adequately communicated that reductions could be lower, and whether the distance used was appropriate: 20,000 km per year is around a U.S. car's average annual driving distance, while a UK car's is 13,440 km.[101]

Political symbolism

The large number of Prius-owning progressive celebrities in 2002 prompted the Washington Post to dub hybrids "Hollywood's latest politically correct status symbol".[102] While conservative "Prius Patriots" were also cited in 2005,[103] the vehicle carries an image as being a car for politically left-wing environmentalists. A 2007 San Francisco Chronicle article said "Prius Progressives" were becoming an archetype, with American conservative commentator Rush Limbaugh opining that "these liberals think they're ahead of the game on these things, and they're just suckers".[104]

In July 2007 The New York Times published an article using data from CNW Marketing Research finding that 57% of Prius buyers said their main reason for buying was that "it makes a statement about me", while just 37% cited fuel economy as a prime motivator.[105] Shortly afterwards Washington Post columnist Robert Samuelson coined the term "Prius politics" to describe a situation where the driver's desire to "show off" is a stronger motivator than the desire to curb greenhouse gas emissions.[106] Some conservatives promote use of the Toyota Prius and other hybrid cars. For example, Jim Road from What Would Jesus Drive? encouraged people to drive hybrid cars because of the damage that large SUVs and faster cars can do to others.[107]

Former Central Intelligence Agency chief R. James Woolsey, Jr. drives a Prius because of its low fuel consumption. Woolsey noted the volatility of the Middle East, coupled with anti-U.S. sentiment in much of the region. Noting that the high percentage of oil drilled in the Middle East gives vast profits to Middle Eastern regimes, Woolsey believes that it is a patriotic obligation to drive more efficient vehicles. In a Motor Trend magazine article, Woolsey stated that those oil profits find their way to terrorist groups like al-Qaeda, meaning that Americans who buy inefficient vehicles would, in effect, be indirectly funding terrorism. "We're paying for both sides in this war, and that's not a good long-term strategy", said Woolsey. "I have a bumper sticker on the back of my Prius that reads, 'Bin Laden hates this car.'"[108]

Government and corporate incentives

There have been a number of governments with incentives intended to encourage hybrid car sales. In some countries, including the U.S. and Canada, some rebate incentives have been exhausted, while other countries such as the United Kingdom, Sweden, Belgium, and the Netherlands have various or alternative incentives to purchasing a hybrid vehicle.

Several U.S. companies offer employees incentives. Bank of America will reimburse US$3,000 on the purchase of new hybrid vehicles to full- and part-time associates working more than 20 hours per week.[109] Google,[110] software company Hyperion Solutions,[111] and organic food and drink producer Clif Bar & Co[109][broken footnote] offer employees a US$5,000 credit toward their purchase of certain hybrid vehicles including the Prius. Integrated Archive Systems, a Palo Alto IT company, offers a US$10,000 subsidy toward the purchase of hybrid vehicles to full-time employees employed more than one year.[109][broken footnote]

Travelers Companies, a large insurance company, offers hybrid owners a 10% discount on auto insurance in most U.S. states.[112] The Farmers Insurance Group offers a similar discount of up to 10% in most U.S. states.[109][broken footnote]

See also

Template:Commons category

Notes and references

  1. 1.0 1.1 Woodyard, Chris (2011-02-20). "Voters decide Toyota Prii is now official plural for Prius". USA Today. http://content.usatoday.com/communities/driveon/post/2011/02/toyota-prius-prii-prium-priuses-plural-james-lipton/1. Retrieved 2012-02-08. 
  2. "2008 Toyota Prius" (Press release). Hybridcar.com. 2007-10-21. http://www.hybridcar.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=521&Itemid=103. Retrieved 2011-11-30. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 "Worldwide Prius Cumulative Sales Top 2M Mark; Toyota Reportedly Plans Two New Prius Variants for the US By End of 2012". Green Car Congress. 2010-10-07. http://www.greencarcongress.com/2010/10/worldwide-prius-cumulative-sales-top-2m-mark-toyota-reportedly-plans-two-new-prius-variants-for-the-.html#more. Retrieved 2010-10-07. 
  4. "Toyota tops 2 million hybrid sales worldwide" (Press release). AutobloGreen. 2009-09-04. http://green.autoblog.com/2009/09/04/toyota-tops-2-million-hybrid-sales-worldwide/. Retrieved 2009-10-24. 
  5. Schwartz, Ariel (March 9, 2011). "EVs Gain Traction as Toyota Prius Sales Hit 3 Million". Fast Company. http://www.fastcompany.com/1736964/why-it-matters-that-three-million-toyota-priuss-have-been-sold. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Toyota sells One-Millionth Prius in the US". Green Car Congress. 2011-04-06. http://www.greencarcongress.com/2011/04/prii-20110406.html#more. Retrieved 2011-04-07. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Toyota Prius' cumulative domestic sales top 1 million". Mainichi Daily News. 2011-09-13. http://mdn.mainichi.jp/mdnnews/business/archive/news/2011/09/13/20110913p2g00m0bu051000c.html. Retrieved 2011-09-15. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Sebastian Blanco (2011-09-14). "2012 Toyota Prius Plug-In Hybrid now offers 111 MPGe". AutoblogGreen. http://green.autoblog.com/2011/09/14/2012-toyota-prius-plug-in-hybrid-mpge-mpg/. Retrieved 2011-09-16.  See details in Toyota Press Release
  9. Toyota Reveals All-New Prius
  10. "Toyota Prius Family". Toyota Motor Corporation. http://www.toyota.com/upcoming-vehicles/prius-family/. Retrieved 5 February 2011. 
  11. Prius Goes Plural - When One Becomes More on YouTube
  12. Woodyard, Chris (3 February 2011). "James Lipton interviews octopus about Toyota Prius". USA Today. http://content.usatoday.com/communities/driveon/post/2011/02/james-lipton-interviews-octopus-for-toyota-prius/1. Retrieved 5 February 2011. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 Eric Loveday (2011-09-16). "Toyota revises 2012 Prius with minor tweaks inside and out". AutoblogGreen. http://green.autoblog.com/2011/09/16/toyota-revises-2012-prius-hybrid-tweak/. Retrieved 2011-09-17. 
  14. "Toyota Introduces 2012 Prius Plug-in Hybrid" (Press release). Toyota. 2011-09-16. http://pressroom.toyota.com/releases/toyota+introduces+2012+prius+plug-in+hybrid.htm. Retrieved 2011-09-17. 
  15. Chang-Ran Kim (2003-10-02). "Hybrids Can Be Cheap to Make, Toyota Says". Rainforest Action Network. http://ran.org/media_center/news_article/?uid=833. Retrieved 2008-05-30. 
  16. "Toyota Prius Chronological History". http://www.toyoland.com/prius/chronology.html. Retrieved 2009-11-06. 
  17. Taylor, A., Birth of the Prius, Fortune, February 24, 2006. Retrieved 2007-12-19.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Emily Thornton (1997-12-15). "Japan's hybrid cars". Business Week. http://www.businessweek.com/archives/1997/b3557013.arc.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-10. 
  19. Prius Model History, Clean Green Car Company. Retrieved 2007-12-19.
  20. 2001 Toyota Prius Lineup, Internet Autoguide. Retrieved 2007-12-20.
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