Turbo-compound engine

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The Napier Nomad engine. The power-recovery turbine sits underneath a two-stroke diesel engine.

A turbo-compound engine is a reciprocating engine that employs a blowdown turbine to recover energy from the exhaust gases. The turbine is usually mechanically connected to the crankshaft, as on the DC-7B and the Super Constellation,[1] but electric and hydraulic systems have been investigated as well. The turbine increases the output of the engine without increasing its fuel consumption, thus reducing the specific fuel consumption. The turbine is referred to as a blowdown turbine (or power-recovery turbine), as it recovers the energy developed in the exhaust manifold during blowdown, that is the first period of the exhaust process when the piston still is on its expansion stroke (this is possible since the exhaust valves open before bottom dead center).

When a blowdown turbine is attached to an engine it will not reduce power due to exhaust gas flow restriction,Template:Fix since a blowdown turbine is a velocity turbine, not a pressure turbine as is a turbocharger. The exhaust restriction imparted by the three blowdown turbines used on the Wright R3350 is equal to a well-designed jet stack system used on a conventional radial engine.Template:Fix However, the blowdown turbines recover about 550 hp (410 kW) at METO (maximum continuous except for take-off) power.

Turbo-compounding was used on on several airplane engines after World War II, including the Napier Nomad[2][3] and the Wright R3350[4][5] being examples. In the case of the R-3350, maintenance crews sometimes nicknamed the turbine the parts recovery turbine due to its negative effect on engine reliability. Turbo-compound versions of the Napier Deltic, Rolls-Royce Crecy, and Allison V-1710 were constructed but none was developed beyond the prototype stage. It was realized in many cases the power produced by the simple turbine was approaching that of the enormously complex and maintenance-intensive piston engine to which it was attached. As a result, turbo-compound aero engines were soon supplanted by turboprop and turbojet engines.

Some modern heavy truck diesel manufacturers have incorporated turbo-compounding into their modern designs. Examples include the Detroit Diesel DD15[6][7] and Scania[8] in production from 2001 [9]

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Turbo-compound engines

Diagram showing a true turbo-compound at the bottom, and a gas turbine loosely coupled to a piston engine at the top

See also

References

  1. "The Race of the Airliners" Popular Mechanics, February 1956, pp. 113-118, see p. 114.
  2. Gunston, Bill (30 April 1954). "Napier Nomad: An engine of outstanding efficiency" (PDF). Flight: 543–551. http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1954/1954%20-%201215.html. Retrieved 19 February 2010. 
  3. E.E. Chatterton (22 April 1954). "Napier diesels: An RAeS lecture" (PDF). Flight: 552. http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1954/1954%20-%201223.html. Retrieved 19 February 2010. 
  4. "Ten ideas that failed: 2 Turbo-compound piston engine" (PDF). Flight. 16 December 2003. http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2003/12/16/175396/ten-ideas-that-failed.html. Retrieved 19 February 2010. 
  5. "Super survivor" (PDF). Flight. 18 June 1997. http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/1997/06/18/4788/super-survivor.html. Retrieved 19 February 2010. "in its hey-day, the Connie was often called the world's best tri-motor" 
  6. "DD15" (video). Detroit Diesel. http://www.detroitdiesel.com/engines/dd15/performance.aspx. 
  7. "DD15 Brochure" (pdf). Detroit Diesel. http://www.detroitdiesel.com/pdf/engines/2009-dd15-brochure.pdf. 
  8. "Scania Turbocompound". Scania Group. http://www.scania.com/products-services/trucks/main-components/engines/engine-technology/turbocompound/index.aspx. 
  9. "Scania produces 4 ECO-point engine from Oct 2001". Scania Group. http://www.scania.com/media/pressreleases/2001070614en.aspx. "With 440 hp, the new version of Scania's 12-litre turbocompound engine is suitable for Alpine terrain, as well as normal European long-haul and construction operations." 
  10. "The Turbo Compounding Boost". 2007. http://detroitdiesel.com/engines/dd15/economy.aspx. 
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